一画 – Chinese philosophy and culture

yī huà 一画

All Forms of Painting as Multiplied from a Single Stroke / Oneness in Painting

字面义指绘画用的线条,实际指绘画艺术的根本法则,亦为宇宙一切事物生成发展的普遍法则。由清代画家石涛提出,其具体含义今人有不同理解。石涛借鉴老子学说及禅宗的理论(或说取自伏羲从阴阳一画创制八卦,进而创建文明世界),认为宇宙万物都生成于原始的“一”,画家笔下的有形万物,亦由“一”创生并贯之以“一”。在石涛那里,“一”指“无”,绘画就是从“无”创生有形物象的过程;“一”又指“道”,既是绘画之“道”,又是宇宙万物之“道”,两者相通合“一”;“一”还是蕴含、贯通于各种绘画手法的普遍法则,画家笔下的每一笔、每一根线条都体现着这一普遍法则。“一画论”包含“一”与“道”、与“无”、与“有”、与“多”等多重关系,有着丰富的哲学意蕴和艺术思想。这一术语后来成为中国传统美学思想、画论的重要范畴。

While this literally means “lines employed in painting,” it is used to refer to the fundamental rules guiding the art of painting and, furthermore, to the universal laws of the formation and development of everything in the universe. This notion was first put forward by the Qing-dynasty painter Shi Tao, though his ideas were controversial among contemporary scholars and artists. Shi, drawing inspiration from Daoist philosophy and Chan (Zen) theory, and perhaps from Fu Xi’s use of a single line to symbolize yin and yang as a unitary whole in creating the eight trigrams (eight combinations of three whole or broken lines formerly used in divination), held that all things in the universe derive from a single oneness. All tangible things under a painter’s brush, likewise, forever have that oneness at their core. For him, oneness means naught. Painting is thus a process of generating tangible objects from nothing. This is also the ultimate Dao — a combination of the way of painting with that of all things in the universe. As well, oneness is a set of broadly applicable rules present throughout the process of painting. Each stroke or line reflects these rules. The oneness in painting theory encompasses multiple relationships between oneness on the one hand, and the Dao, nothingness, tangibility, and multiplicity on the other. It is rich in philosophical implication and artistic significance. This term later became an important part of traditional Chinese aesthetic thought and painting theory.

引例 Citation:

◎一画者,众有之本,万象之根,见用于神,藏用于人,而世人不知。(石涛《画语录·一画章》)【著作名。论述中国画创作原则与技法的著作】

(“一画”是一切事物和现象生成发展的根本,用“心”体悟可以观照到它,它就隐藏在人的心中,但世人对此并不了解。)

“Oneness in painting is the foundation of all things and phenomena in their formation and development. We can perceive it if we are willing to experience it with our soul. It inheres in our souls though we do not quite understand it. (Shi Tao: Enlightening Remarks on Painting)

◎受之于远,得之最近;识之于近,役之于远。一画者,字画下手之浅近功夫也;变画者,用笔用墨之浅近法度也。(石涛《画语录·运腕章》)

(在超越画法的宇宙万物中,领悟最接近绘画本质的普遍法则;在细微浅近的笔画之间,把握宇宙人生之道。“一画”是字画最粗浅的入门功夫;而它的千变万化,也是运笔用墨的最基本的法度。)

Feel the universal laws of the very nature of painting in all that lies beyond painting techniques’ grasp. Capture the essence of life and the universe. Oneness in painting is the most basic skill of painting and calligraphy; its numerous variations are a most basic measure, too, for the execution of brush and ink. (Shi Tao: On the Principle and Techniques of Painting)

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