不愤不启,不悱不发 – Chinese philosophy and culture

bù fèn bù qǐ, bù fěi bù fā 不愤不启,不悱不发

Instruct Only Who Is Anxious to Learn; Teach Only Who Wants to Express Himself but Does Not Know How.

教导学生,不到他想弄明白而不得的时候,不去开导他;不到他想说却说不出来的时候,不去启发他。“愤”是将懂未懂时非常着急的状态,“启”即开导、引导,“悱”是想表达但表达不出来心里郁闷的状态,“发”即阐发、说明。这是孔子提出的教育智慧。它强调学生在教学过程中的主体地位。现代中国教学论中的“启发性原则”即渊源于此。

One should not instruct a student until he is anxious to learn; one should not give guidance to a student until he wants to express himself but does not know how. This term is an underlying principle of Confucius’ philosophy on education. It stresses the importance of keeping students motivated. The principle of guidance of teaching in contemporary educational theory originates from this concept.

引例 Citation:

◎子曰:“不愤不启,不悱不发,举一隅不以三隅反,则不复也。”(《论语·述而》)

(孔子说:“教导学生,不到他想弄明白而不得的时候,不去开导他;不到他想说却说不出来的时候,不去启发他。教给他一个方面的东西,他却不能由此而推知其他三个方面的东西,那就不再教他了。”)

Confucius said: “I do not instruct a disciple until he is anxious to learn; I do not give guidance to a disciple until he wants to express himself but does not know how. If I teach him one thing, yet he cannot draw inferences on three other related matters, there is no point in teaching him anymore.” (The Analects)

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