二谛 – Chinese philosophy and culture

èrdì 二谛

Satyadvaya / Two Truths

两个层面上的真实。“谛”即真实不虚的道理。“二谛”一般指真谛和俗谛,分别又称胜义谛和世俗谛,即在终极本质和世间现象两个层面上各成立一种真实。这一分疏真理的方法始于阿毗达摩类的经典:世俗层面指名言表象,而胜义层面指真实存在的诸法,对应于不同的认知境界。二谛的思想被大乘经典广泛运用,主要指:一切事物在本性的层面上是空,但表现为纷繁的现象(似乎是“有”)。又《中论》言“诸佛依二谛,为众生说法”,其中俗谛指任何名言表诠,包括佛陀的教诲,相应的胜义谛则指超言绝象的真实。基于上述说法,隋代时,释吉藏(549—623)综合各个层面的二谛,发展为“四重二谛”;释智(yǐ,538—597)则将空假胜俗二谛与中道相接,统合为“三谛”。

Satya means unfailing truth in Sanskrit. Satyadvaya refers to truth at two levels: paramārtha-satya (the ultimate truth), which is based on the absolute nature, and -satya (the conventional truth), based on worldly phenomena. This division of truth according to the level of cognition originates in the canonical Abhidharma works, where names, words, appearances, and phenomena belong to the worldly realm, and real dharma belongs to the absolute realm. In the classics of Mahayana Buddhism, satyadvaya is widely adapted into the theory that all things, empty in nature, appear as complicated phenomena. (In other words, inherent emptiness appears as bhava, or worldly existence.) Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way interprets satyadvaya in another way. It argues, “The Buddhas teach the dharma to all sentient beings according to satyadvaya.” The conventional satya (truth) refers to all names, words, expressions, and interpretations of worldly phenomena, including the teachings of the Buddha, while the ultimate satya refers to the reality beyond word and appearance. This theory influenced a number of Buddhist schools. In the Sui Dynasty, Shi Jizang (549–623), the founder of the Three-treatise School, developed the theory into “the four levels of satyadvaya.” Shi Zhiyi (538–597), the founder of the Tiantai School, proposed a theory of “the three truths” by incorporating the middleway truth to the existing theory of the empty truth (or the ultimate truth) and the false truth (or the conventional truth).

引例 Citation:

◎又此即二谛义:真谛空故,不得定有;世谛有故,不得言定无。此用二谛互破其定有、定无也。(释吉藏《中观论疏》卷四(本))

(而且这就是“二谛”的意思:在究竟真实的意义上,事物是空性的,没有持续不变的存在本体;而在世俗现象的层面上,则不能说绝对没有。这是利用两个层面的真实对两种极端的认识进行互相攻破,否定绝对的有和绝对的无。)

And this is what satyadvaya means. According to paramārtha-satya, all things are empty in nature, and so there is no constant existence. According to -satya, all things appear as phenomena, and so there is no absolute nothingness. This is how we use satyadvaya to deny constant existence and absolute nothingness. (Shi Jizang: The Exegesis of Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way)

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