京(京师) – Chinese philosophy and culture

jinɡ(jīnɡshī) 京(京师)

Capital of a Country

国都,天子处理政事及所居的城邑。“京”本指高大的山冈、土丘,引申为“大”。“师”即“众”,指人口众多。称天子处理政事及所居的地方为“京”或“京师”,是表明天子都城的规模宏大,也是对天子的尊崇。

This term refers to the place where the Son of Heaven resided and conducted state affairs. Jing (京) originally meant a big hill or mound, representing the idea of being big or grand, and shi (师) meant a lot of people. To name the place where the the Son of Heaven resided and conducted state affairs jing or jingshi (京师) suggests that the capital is huge in size and expresses reverence towards the Son of Heaven.

引例 Citation:

◎京师者何?天子之居也。京者何?大也。师者何?众也。天子之居,必以众大之辞言之。(《公羊传·桓公九年》)

(“京师”是什么?是天子居住的地方。“京”指什么?是指[规模]宏大。“师”指什么?是指[人口]众多。天子居住的城邑,必须用“众”“大”这样的词语来形容。)

What does jingshi mean? It is the place where the Son of Heaven resides. What does jing mean? It means grandeur and magnificence. What does shi mean? It means a lot of people. No words other than populous and grandeur can best describe the place where the Son of Heaven lives. (Gongyang’s Commentary on The Spring and Autumn Annals)

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