人副天数 – Chinese philosophy and culture

rén fù tiān shù 人副天数

Humanity Should Be Aligned with Nature.

人的身体结构、情感、伦理等符合天的结构与秩序。“人副天数”之说是由董仲舒(前179—前104)提出的。他认为,天地万物及其运行有其自身的结构和秩序。而人的身体、情感、思虑以及行事、伦理,都与天地的结构与秩序相合,特别在数量上有某种对应关系。根据“人副天数”之说,人不过是天的一个副本。这一思想构成了天人之间相互感应、作用的基础。

People’s physical constitution, emotions and ethics should closely correspond with the structure and order of Nature. The theory of “Humanity Should Be Aligned with Nature” was put forward by Dong Zhongshu (179-104 BC). He believed that all things between heaven and earth and their operation had their own intrinsic structure and order. A person’s body, feelings, thinking, acts, and ethics are all in correspondence with the structure and order of Nature, particularly in numbers. According to this theory, humans are but a duplicate of Nature. Dong’s idea provided the basis for mutual interaction between people and Nature.

引例 Citations:

◎天以终岁之数,成人之身,故小节三百六十六,副日数也;大节十二分,副月数也;内有五脏,副五行数也;外有四肢,副四时数也;乍视乍瞑,副昼夜也;乍刚乍柔,副冬夏也;乍哀乍乐,副阴阳也;心有计虑,副度数也;行有伦理,副天地也。此皆暗肤着身,与人俱生,比而偶之弇(yǎn)合。于其可数也,副数;不可数者,副类。皆当同而副天一也。(董仲舒《春秋繁露·人副天数》)

(天以一年的数目,成就人的身体,因此小的骨节有366个,符合一年的天数;大的骨节有12个,符合一年的月数;体内有五脏,符合五行的数目;外部有四肢,符合四季的数目;眼睛一时张视一时闭合,符合昼夜之象;性格一时刚强一时柔和,符合冬夏之象;情绪一时悲哀一时喜乐,符合阴阳之象;心中有算计思虑,符合天地的规则;行事有伦理,符合天地的秩序。这些都暗暗附着在人身上,人一出生就具备,匹配着天地的数目而相合。对于可以计数的,人身符合天之数。对于不可计数的,人身符合天的类目。就它们符合于天的法则这一相同点而言都是一致的。)

Humans have 366 small joints, like the number of days of a year. We have 12 large joints, the number of months in a year. We have five organs, like the five elements. We have four limbs, like the number of seasons in a year. We open our eyes one minute and close them the next, which is just like changes of day and night. We may be firm this moment and tender next, resembling winter and summer. We may become grieved this moment and joyful the next, like yin and yang. We have plans and concerns, which are patterned after the operation of heaven and earth. We follow our ethics when acting, in compliance with the order of heaven and earth. All these are inherent in us as soon as we are born. People and Nature are matched in countable ways. In other aspects that cannot be expressed in numbers, our constitution corresponds with Nature. Both countable and uncountable aspects conform to the laws of Nature. (Dong Zhongshu: Luxuriant Gems of The Spring and Autumn Annals)

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