公安派 – Chinese philosophy and culture

gōng ānpài 公安派

The Gong’an School of Literary Writing

明代后期以湖北公安作家袁宗道(1560—1600)、袁宏道(1568—1610)和袁中道(1570—1626)三兄弟为代表的文学流派。其中以袁宏道声誉最高、成绩最大,其次是袁中道,袁宗道又次之。他们提倡“独抒性灵”,反对明代前期一些文士的拟古风气,以“趣”作为文学作品的批评标准,主张文章写作发自内心真情,从胸臆自然流出,不必拘泥于特定的法则。他们的文学成就主要表现在散文、诗歌方面,擅长写闲情逸致。公安派对于民间文学持包容和肯定态度,主张从通俗文学中吸取营养。这一流派的文学主张,在一定程度上反映出明代中期兴起的市民阶层的审美趣味。

This was a literary school represented by three brothers, namely Yuan Zongdao(1560-1600), Yuan Hongdao (1568-1610) and Yuan Zhongdao (1570-1626), who lived in Gong’an, Hubei Province, in late Ming times. Of the trio, Yuan Hongdao was the most accomplished and renowned. Next was Yuan Zhongdao, who in turn outshined his brother Yuan Zongdao. They advocated giving full expression to one’s true feelings and so opposed some early-Ming men of letters’ soulless emulation of ancient literature. They also advocated genuine interest or concern as the criterion for literary criticism, stating that writing should flow forth from one’s heart and not be constrained by particular regulations and formulae. Putting their efforts mainly in prose and poetry, they paid particular attention to writing in a leisurely and carefree mood. The Gong’an School accepted and appreciated folk literature and stressed the need for writers to draw sustenance from vernacular literature. This attitude reflected to some degree the aesthetic tastes of the newly-emerging urban middle class during the mid-Ming period.

引例 Citations:

◎先是,王、李之学盛行,袁氏兄弟独心非之。宗道在馆中,与同馆黄辉力排其说。于唐好白乐天,于宋好苏轼,名其斋曰“白苏”。至宏道,益矫以清新轻俊,学者多舍王、李而从之,目为公安体。(《明史·文苑传·袁宏道》)

(刚开始时,王世贞与李梦阳等人的诗学盛行,唯独袁氏兄弟不以为然,袁宗道在学馆教书时,与同事黄辉竭力反对王、李之学。他们推崇唐代白居易、宋代苏轼的文学创作,袁宗道还以“白苏”来命名自己的书斋。到了袁宏道,越发以清新轻俊的文风来矫正模仿古人的风气,于是学习诗文的人大多舍弃王世贞、李梦阳而追随“三袁”,被称为“公安体”。)

When the theories of poetry advocated by Wang Shizhen and Li Mengyang first flourished throughout the literary community, the Yuan brothers showed reservations about them. Yuan Zongdao, together with his colleague Huang Hui, vehemently opposed Wang and Li’s theories. They favored the works of the Tang Dynasty poet Bai Juyi and Song Dynasty writer Su Shi. Yuan Zongdao even applied the name “Bai-Su” for his studio. Yuan Hongdao, in his turn, tried especially hard to rectify the prevalent emulation of old literary styles with his refreshing, innovative way of writing. Thereupon, most literary men abandoned Wang Shizhen and Li Mengyang in favor of the “Three Yuans.” Hence comes the term “Gong’an style.” (The History of the Ming Dynasty)

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