刚柔 – Chinese philosophy and culture

ɡānɡróu 刚柔

Gang and Rou

人和事物所具有的两种相反的属性或德性。主要有三种含义:其一,就自然物或器物而言,“刚”指坚硬,“柔”指柔软。其二,就个人的品格而言,“刚”指为人刚毅、坚强,“柔”指温柔、谦逊。其三,就为政、执法的风格而言,“刚”指严厉,“柔”指宽宥。“刚柔”被认为是“阴阳”的某种具体表现。“刚”与“柔”之间的对立与调和是促成事物运动变化的根本原因。在具体事物或行事中,二者应达到某种平衡,“刚”与“柔”过度都是不好的、危险的。

Two opposing properties or qualities that objects and human beings possess. The term has three different meanings. First, when describing natural or manmade objects, gang (刚) means hard and rou (柔) means soft. Second, when describing human qualities, gang means strong and determined, while rou means gentle and modest. Third, when describing a style of governance or law enforcement, gang means strict and rou means lenient. Gang and rou are one of the manifestations of yin and yang. Their mutual opposition and accommodation are the basic causes of change, and they must achieve a certain balance within any object or action. Too much of either is inappropriate and dangerous.

引例 Citations:

◎是以立天之道曰阴与阳,立地之道曰柔与刚,立人之道曰仁与义。(《周易·说卦》)

(所以确立天的法则为阴与阳,确立地的法则为柔与刚,确立人世的法则为仁与义。)

The laws governing the ways of heaven are yin and yang, those governing the ways of the earth are rou and gang, and those governing the ways of human society are benevolence and righteousness. (The Book of Changes)

◎刚柔相推,变在其中矣。(《周易·系辞下》)

(刚与柔相互推移转换,变化就在其中了。)

Change occurs when gang and rou interact. (The Book of Changes)

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *