动静 – Chinese philosophy and culture

dònɡjìnɡ 动静

Movement and Stillness

事物存在的两种基本状态。就具体事物的存在状态而言,事物或运动或静止。两种状态是对立的,但也是相互依赖、相互转换的。但对于事物恒常的或本质的存在状态,古人则有着不同的认识。儒家认为,“动”才是事物更根本的存在状态。天地万物处于永恒的变化与运动之中。道家则认为,运动的具体事物起始于“静”,最终也要归于“静”。佛家则主张,事物本质上都是静止的,人们所看到的运动变化只是虚幻的假象。

The term refers to two fundamental states in the existence of things, namely, movement and stillness. These two kinds of states are antithetic, but they also rely on each other and change into each other. Ancient Chinese had different views about the constant or the intrinsic state of the existence of things. Confucian scholars believed that “movement” was the fundamental state of existence of things, and that all things under heaven and on earth were in perpetual change and motion. Daoist scholars held that concrete things in motion were originally still, and that they would eventually return to stillness. Buddhists maintained that things were inherently all still and that the movements and changes people saw were just illusionary.

引例 Citations:

◎动静有常,刚柔断矣。(《周易·系辞下》)

(事物的动静变化有其规则,由此断定事物的刚柔。)

There is a fundamental rule governing the movement and stillness of things, which determines if a thing is firm or gentle. (The Book of Changes)

◎凡动息则静,静非对动者也。(王弼《老子注》)

(凡是运动的事物停息则归于静,本体的静不是与具体事物的动相对应的。)

When things stop to move, there is stillness. Fundamental stillness does not correspond to movement in concrete things. (Wang Bi: Annotations on Laozi)

◎必求静于诸动,故虽动而常静。(僧肇《肇论·物不迁论》)

(必须在各种事物的变动中探究静的本质,那么虽然表面是变动的,但本质上却是恒常静止的。)

One should explore stillness in every movement. By doing so, he can see that beneath movement there lies constant stillness. ( Seng Zhao: Treatises of Seng Zhao)

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