南北书派 – Chinese philosophy and culture

nán-běi shūpài 南北书派

The Northern and Southern Schools of Calligraphy

中国书法的不同风格流派。宋代欧阳修(1007—1072)、赵孟坚(1199—1267),清代陈弈禧(1648—1709)、何焯(1661—1722)等人对南北书风之不同曾有过探讨,清代阮元(1764—1849)的《南北书派论》对此问题有更为明确而详备的阐述。他以为南北二派都出于钟繇(151—230)、卫瓘(220─291),索靖(239—303)为北派之祖。北派之书以碑为主,上承汉隶,能得古法,书风古朴;南派之书以帖为主,多不习篆、隶,尚真、行、草书,书风妍丽。

The Northern and Southern schools represent two distinctive styles of ancient Chinese calligraphy. Ouyang Xiu (1007-1072) and Zhao Mengjian (1199-1267) of the Song Dynasty, and Chen Yixi (1648-1709) and He Zhuo (1661-1722) of the Qing explored the differences of these two styles. Later, Ruan Yuan (1764-1849), also of the Qing Period, addressed this issue with clarity and at depth in his “On the Southern and Northern Styles of Calligraphy.” In his view, both styles originated with Zhong Yao (151-230, from late Han to the early Three Kingdoms Period) and Wei Guan (220-291, the Three Kingdoms Period), while Suo Jing (239-303, the Western Jin Dynasty) was the founder of the northern style. The Northern School features calligraphic inscriptions on stones, which displays a primitive simplicity of the official script of the Han Dynasty. The southern style, on the other hand, is mostly found on paper and, rather than following the seal script of the Qin or the clerical script of the Han, adopts the regular script of the late Han, the semi-cursive script of the Western Jin or the cursive script increasingly popular over a much longer period of time. It is charming and beautiful.

引例 Citations:

◎晋宋而下,分而南北……北方多朴,有隶体,无晋逸雅。(赵孟坚《论书》)

(晋宋时期之后,书法分南北两派……北派书法多质朴,擅长隶书,没有晋朝时的飘逸和雅致。)

In the years after the Jin and Song of the Southern Dynasties, northern and southern styles of calligraphy diverged… In the north simplicity prevailed, and the clerical script was popular, but the formal elegance of the Jin time was lost. (Zhao Mengjian: On Calligraphy)

◎东晋、宋、齐、梁、陈,为南派;赵、燕、魏、齐、周、隋,为北派也。……(南派)长于启牍……(北派)长于碑榜。……至唐初,太宗独善王羲之书,虞世南最为亲近,始令王氏一家兼掩南北矣。(阮元《南北书派论》)

(东晋、宋、齐、梁、陈时期的书法,称之为南派书法;赵、燕、魏、齐、周、隋等时期的书法,可称之为北派书法。……南派书法家擅长于书写奏疏、公文、书信之类……北派书法家擅长于书写碑文、牌匾之类。……唐太宗李世民尤其喜欢王羲之的书法,大臣虞世南效法学习,将王羲之家族的书法发扬光大,兼得南北派书法之长。)

The calligraphy of the Eastern Jin, Song, Qi, Liang and Chen period may be known as the southern style, while that of the Zhao, Yan, Wei, Qi, Zhou, and Sui period, the northern style. The southern style was mostly found in petitions to the throne, documents and letters, whereas the northern style was imprinted on calligraphic inscriptions on stones and plaques… Li Shimin, Emperor Taizong of Tang, was especially fond of Wang Xizhi’s calligraphy. One of his ministers Yu Shinan emulated the Wang’s style and raised it to a higher level of artistry. His calligraphy had the merits of both the southern and northern styles. (Ruan Yuan: On the Southern and Northern Styles of Calligraphy)

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