博爱 – Chinese philosophy and culture

bó’ài 博爱

Extensive Love to Benefit All

广泛地爱,惠及所有的人。“博”即广泛、广大;“爱”即“惠”,惠及众人。古人认为,“安民则惠”(使民众安定生活就是惠),“爱”是“仁”的体现,而“仁”则是与人亲密。“博爱”犹言爱民、惠民,首先是一种执政理念,意在使国家的制度、法令、政策、措施的受益面尽可能最大化,使更多的人得到好处。它也指与众人亲密相处、友善相待、相互扶助的一种社会伦理、个人品格或情怀。

Bo (博) means extensive, wide; ai (爱) is synonymous with hui (惠) which means benefit to all. Ancient Chinese believed that ensuring the people a life of peace and security is hui. Love in turn is an expression of ren (仁) , or benevolence, which is based on close human relationships. The term applies primarily to a concept of governance of “love for and benefit to the people,” as demonstrated through its systems, laws, policies, and measures which should be as inclusive as possible. The term also refers to a kind of social morality and personal integrity based on harmonious engagement with others, goodwill, and mutual help.

引例 Citations:

◎先王见教之可以化民也,是故先之以博爱,而民莫遗其亲;陈之德义,而民兴行……(《孝经·三才》)

(从前的贤明君主发现教育可以感化民众,所以先倡导博爱,民众因此没有遗弃双亲的;向民众讲述道德、礼义,民众于是起而遵行……)

Wise rulers in the past discovered that education could change people for the better so they advocated extensive love, and consequently no people abandoned their parents. They taught people about morality and rules of conduct, and consequently they all acted accordingly… (Classic of Filial Piety)

◎人君之道,清净无为,务在博爱,趋在任贤……(刘向《说苑·君道》)

(君主的治国理念或原则,在于顺其自然、不随便干预,努力惠及更多的人,努力任用有才德的人……)

The principles of a ruler should be to govern according to natural laws without unduly interfering, to benefit as many people as possible, and to select the talented and upright for office… (Liu Xiang: Garden of Stories)

◎博爱之谓仁,行而宜之之谓义,由是而之焉之谓道,足乎己无待于外之谓德。(韩愈《原道》)

(广爱众人就叫做“仁”,践行“仁”而行为合宜就叫做“义”,遵循“仁义”而前行就叫做“道”,无需借助外力达到自身完满就叫做“德”。)

To have a broad love for humans is benevolence, to implement benevolence and behave in the correct way is to have righteousness, and to act with benevolence and righteousness is to attain the proper way. To achieve a consummate personal state without outside intervention is to attain virtue. (Han Yu: The Origins of Dao)

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