卦爻 – Chinese philosophy and culture

ɡuàyáo 卦爻

Trigrams and Component Lines

“卦”是由“—”和“- -”排列组合而成的一套符号系统,其中的“—”为“阳爻”,“- -”为“阴爻”。每三“爻”合成一卦,可得“八卦”。每六“爻”合成一卦,可得“六十四卦”。“卦爻”的产生与占筮有关。古人通过分取蓍草,演算其变化之数,从而确定卦爻,以预测吉凶。后人为卦爻赋予各种象征意义,并用以理解和阐发包括人事在内的天地万物的运行变化及其法则。

A gua (trigram) is a system of symbols consisting of undivided lines (—) and divided lines (- -). The undivided line (—) is a yang line while the divided one (- -) a yin line. Three lines make a trigram, and there are eight such trigrams. When six lines are put together, they together make 64 hexagram combinations. Trigrams and component lines were created partly for the purpose of divination. Ancient Chinese people used yarrow stalks to make hexagrams, calculated the variations they suggested, and consulted them for the purpose of divination. Later on, people used trigrams symbolically to explain the changes and the laws regulating the changes that occurred in people and everything else, and why and how these changes took place.

引例 Citations:

◎八卦成列,象在其中矣;因而重之,爻在其中矣。(《周易·系辞下》)

(八卦创立分列,万物的象征就在其中了;根据八卦重成六十四卦,所有的爻就都在其中了。)

When the eight trigrams were invented, they embodied the images of all things. When the eight trigrams were multiplied by eight trigrams and permuted into the 64 hexagrams, all the 384 lines were included. (The Book of Changes)

◎圣人有以见天下之动,而观其会通,以行其典礼,系辞焉以断其吉凶,是故谓之爻。(《周易·系辞上》)

(圣人看到天下万物的运动变化,观察其中的会合贯通之处,从而施行制度礼仪,在“爻”下附系文辞以判断吉凶,所以称之为“爻”。)

When sages saw the changes or events happening under heaven, they observed the similarities of the events and responded with appropriate rites and rituals. They judged their implications of the changes by obtaining explanations from the yao. (The Book of Changes)

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