取境 – Chinese philosophy and culture

qǔjìnɡ 取境

Qujing (Conceptualize an Aestheric Feeling)

指诗人在诗歌创作中,选取最能表达内心情感的物象并构思符合诗人自己的审美感受的意境。由唐代诗僧皎然在《诗式》中提出。皎然在总结六朝至中唐诗人的创作经验与方式时提出,作诗的时候,要精于构思,立意尽量奇特,不落俗套,在一番苦思冥想之后,灵感迸发、神完气足,才能写出境界上好的诗歌作品。虽然构思险奇,但是最终形成的作品风格要平易自然,不要显露精心思索的痕迹。取境与意境、境界等术语关系密切,属于中国古典诗论中关于“境”的术语系列。

The term means to conceptualize an aesthetic feeling by selecting images that best express a poet’s sentiments and appreciation. The term qujing (取境) was coined by the Tang monk poet Jiaoran in his Poetic Styles. After conducting a review of how poets from the Six Dynasties to the mid-Tang Dynasty wrote poems, he concluded that to write poems, one must structure one’s thoughts ingeniously so as to generate a uniquely original conception with no trace of clichés. Then, after some deep thinking, an inspiration will arise and his imagination will run free. In this way, the poet can create a poem with a fine visionary world. Although the conception may be highly original, ultimately the style of the work should be simple and natural without any traces of having been laboriously crafted. This term is closely related to the terms jingjie (境界) and yijing (意境); together, they are part of a series of terms dealing with jing (境) in classical Chinese poetics.

引例 Citations:

◎夫诗人之思,初发取境偏高,则一首举体便高;取境偏逸,则一首举体便逸。(皎然《诗式》)

(诗人刚开始构思的时候,如果取境偏于高迈,那么整首诗的意境就高迈;如果取境偏于飘逸,那么整首诗的意境就飘逸。)

When a poet starts to compose a poem, if his conception of the poem tends towards grandeur, then the artistic conception of the poem will be grand; if his conception of the poem is free and easy, so will be the aesthetic conception of the poem. (Jiaoran: Poetic Styles)

◎夫不入虎穴,焉得虎子。取境之时,须至难至险,始见奇句。成篇之后,观其气貌,有似等闲不思而得,此高手也。(皎然《诗式》)

(不进入老虎的洞穴,就抓不住老虎的幼崽。作诗取境的时候,必须从最难最险的地方开始构思,才能创作出奇妙的诗句。全篇完成之后,再看整首诗的气势和面貌,似乎很平常像没经过思索就写成了,这才是作诗的高手。)

Without entering the tiger’s den, one cannot catch a cub. When developing one’s poetic conception, it is necessary to begin to contemplate what is most difficult and daring before great lines can spring to mind. After one completes a poem, one should review its overall structure and appeal. If it looks so smooth and natural as if written effortlessly, then it will be a great poem. (Jiaoran: Poetic Styles)

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