Name and Substance
Shi (实) refers to an existing object, while ming (名) refers to a name, a title or an appellation given to an object. A name is given on the basis of substance, and it cannot be separated from the knowledge of the substance. Names give expression to people’s understanding about the essence of objects and their interrelations, and the way in which they handle such interrelations. By giving names, people integrate all things and all objects into a certain order. The position and significance of an object in the whole system are determined on the basis of the name, title or the appellation given to it.
That by which an object is called is the name. That which a name refers to is a substance. (Mozi)
An object has a shape, and a shape has a name. The name must not go beyond the substance, and the substance must not extend beyond its name. (Guanzi)