君 – Chinese philosophy and culture

jūn 君

Lord / Nobility / Monarch

最早指包括天子、诸侯、卿、大夫等在内地位尊崇并拥有一定土地、百姓的统治者,后专指诸侯国国君和帝王。“君”的字形由“尹”“口”构成,“尹”即治理,指管理国家,治理百姓;“口”即发令。古人认为,为“君”者须具备四个条件:一有“德”,即具备非凡的德行与才能;二有“命”,即秉承“天命”(上天的旨意);三有“地”,即拥有自己的土地或领地;四有“群”,即管理“群下”(群臣、民众)并为群下所诚心归附。

Originally, the term referred to the Son of Heaven, dukes or princes, ministers, and senior officials who owned land and ruled the common people. It later referred to ducal monarchs and the emperor only. The Chinese character 君 is composed of two parts, namely, 尹 and 口. The top part 尹 means to run a country and govern its people, and the lower part 口 means to give orders. Ancient Chinese believed that a monarch or nobility must possess four qualities: first, having extraordinary virtues and be competent; second, having the mandate of Heaven; third, in possession of land or manor; and fourth, having the ability to govern officials and common people, and enjoying their unfailing loyalty.

引例 Citations:

◎天子、诸侯及卿大夫有地者皆曰“君”。(《仪礼·丧服传》郑玄注)

(天子、诸侯、卿、大夫,凡拥有自己领地的人,都称作“君”。)

The Son of Heaven, dukes or princes, ministers, and senior officials who own land are all regarded as the nobility or lord. (Zheng Xuan: Annotations on The Book of Rites and Rituals)

◎君,群也,下之所归心。(《白虎通义·三纲六纪》)

(君即群,指为群臣、民众所诚心归附。)

The lord, monarch or nobility rules over common people who pledge loyalty to their authority. (Debates of the White Tiger Hall)

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