大学 – Chinese philosophy and culture

dàxué 大学

Daxue / Great Learning

人们在不同意义上使用“大学”的概念。其一,从学校制度而言,“大学”指由国家设立的最高等级的学校,即“太学”,有别于地方设立的“塾”、“庠(xiánɡ)”、“序”等。其二,从教学内容而言,“大学”即所谓成人之学,主要讲授为人处事、治国理政的道理与原则,有别于学习文字或具体礼仪、技艺的“小学”。其三,从教学目标而言,“大学”旨在帮助学生确立健全的人格与德性,培养治国理政的人才。

The concept means different things in different contexts. In terms of institutions of learning, it refers to the institution of highest learning established by the state, which is different from local schools. When it comes to content of learning, it refers to what adults should learn, namely, general rules and principles on governance and human relationship, which are different from that of xiaoxue (小学 Little Learning), namely, learning of words and specific rites or skills. In terms of objective, great learning aims to help students develop sound personality and moral integrity and thus make them qualified for exercising governance.

引例 Citations:

◎古之教者,家有塾,党有庠,术有序,国有学。比年入学,中年考校。一年视离经辨志,三年视敬业乐群,五年视博习亲师,七年视论学取友,谓之小成。九年知类通达,强立而不反,谓之大成。夫然后足以化民易俗,近者说服,而远者怀之,此大学之道也。(《礼记·学记》)

(古代的教育,家族中设有塾,每一党设有庠,每一遂设有序,诸侯国的国都设有学。学生每年入学,隔年考核。第一年考察经文断句、理解经典的能力及学习志向,第三年考察是否专注学业、友爱同学,第五年考察是否博学、亲爱老师,第七年考察学问上是否有独立见解和选取良友的能力,称为小成。第九年考察是否能够触类旁通、通达无碍,坚定独立而不违反所学的道理,称为大成。如此之后足以教化民众、改易风俗,附近的民众都对他心悦诚服,而远方的民众也都来归附他,这就是大学教育的步骤和目标。)

The educational system in ancient times consisted of small schools for each clan in a village, higher level schools for every 500 households, even higher level schools for every 12, 500 households and institutions of higher learning at the capital of a ducal state. Students were enrolled every year, and examinations were held every other year. During the first year, students learned how to punctuate classics and studied them, and they developed motivation through learning. By the third year, students should immerse themselves in learning and develop fraternity with fellow students. During the fifth year, students should gain comprehensive knowledge and hold their teachers in reverence. In the seventh year, students should learn enough to form independent judgment and they should make true friends, which was called secondary attainment. In the ninth year, they should gain a keen sense of what connects different things, have self-confidence, and be independent in thinking without going against what they’ve learned. This was called great attainment. A scholar trained this way could educate others and improve social mores, and thus enjoyed the respect of people both near and afar. This is what Great Learning should achieve. (The Book of Rites)

◎大学之道,在明明德,在亲民,在止于至善。(《礼记·大学》)

(大学的宗旨,在于彰显光明的德性,在于亲和民众,在于达到言行的至善。)

Great Learning aims to foster moral integrity, forge close ties with the people and attain consummate virtue in both words and deeds. (The Book of Rites)

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