大用 – Chinese philosophy and culture

dàyòng 大用

Maximal Functioning

最大的运用,本义指道在外部世界的各种呈现即是道之最大的显现和运用。道家认为内在的道是主宰外部世界变化的根本,客观世界的各种形态都由作为内在本质的道所造成,是体用统一的结果。唐代司空图《二十四诗品》将这一术语引入文学评论,目的是强调诗歌意象丰富多彩的美实际上是作品内在精神与外在形态的统一。人们进行诗歌创作与鉴赏时必须领略现象与本质之美的和谐一致。

Maximal functioning means that all kinds of appearances of Dao in the external world are the greatest manifestation and functioning of Dao. Daoist scholars believe that the internal Dao determines the basis for changes in the external world, and that all kinds of forms in the objective world derive from the active, innate nature of Dao, the result of unity of substance and function. In “Twenty-four Styles of Poetry,” Sikong Tu, a literary critic in the Tang Dynasty, made this notion a term of literary criticism to highlight the view that the rich and colorful imagery in poetry represents unity of the internal spirit of the work and its external shape. In poetry writing and appreciation, one should focus on the harmony between the appearance and the essence.

引例 Citation:

◎大用外腓,真体内充。反虚入浑,积健为雄。(司空图《二十四诗品·雄浑》)

(大道呈现于外显得雄浑阔大,真实的本体则充满于内。唯有返回虚静,内心才能到达浑然之境;积蓄精神力量,笔力才能雄放豪健。)

The grand appearance is an external manifestation of Dao, while the true vitality permeates itself internally. Reverting to a tranquil void, one may gain fullness and amass inner strength, and he will produce powerful works. (Sikong Tu: Twenty-four Styles of Poetry)

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