天 – Chinese philosophy and culture

tiān 天

Tian (Heaven)

“天”是中国古代思想中具有神圣性和终极意义的一个概念。主要有三种不同的含义:其一,指自然意义上的天空或人世之外的整个自然界,其运行呈现出一定的规律和秩序;其二,指主宰万物的具有人格意志的神灵;其三,指万事万物所遵循的普遍法则,同时也是人的心性、道德以及社会和政治秩序的依据。

Tian (天) is a sacred and fundamental concept in ancient Chinese philosophy. It has three different meanings. The first is the physical sky or the entirety of nature (not including human society), the operations of which manifest certain laws and order. The second refers to a spiritual being, which possesses an anthropomorphic will and governs everything in the universe. The third denotes the universal law, which is observed by all things and beings, and which is also the basis of human nature, morality, and social and political orders.

引例 Citations:

◎天行有常,不为尧存,不为桀亡。(《荀子·天论》)

(天的运行有其固定的规律,不因为尧的贤明而存在,不因为桀的暴虐而消失。)

Heaven acts according to its inherent laws. It does not exist due to the virtue of Yao, nor will it disappear because of the tyranny of Jie. (Xunzi)

◎上天孚佑下民。(《尚书·汤诰》)

(上天信任并保佑百姓。)

Heaven trusts and blesses the people. (The Book of History)

◎天者,理也。(《二程遗书》卷十一)

(天就是宇宙的普遍法则。)

Heaven is the overarching law of the universe. (Writings of the Cheng Brothers)

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *