太学 – Chinese philosophy and culture

tàixué 太学

Imperial Academy

由朝廷创办的设于京师的最高学府和最高教育行政机构。西周时期即有“太学”之名,但真正创设是在汉武帝时期(公元前124年)。太学的教授称“博士”,由精通儒家经典、有丰富教学经验、德才兼备的著名学者担任;学生称“博士弟子”“太学生”等,最多时达万人。其后至明清,中央政府一般都在京师设立太学,或设与太学相同职能的教育机构,名称不一,具体制度也有变化。作为官立的中央最高学府,它和地方教育机构、私人教育组织一起构成了中国古代完备的教育体系。它对于传播儒家经典和以儒家为主的主流价值观起到重要作用。

The imperial academy was the highest educational institution and educational administrative department in feudal China. The term first appeared in the Western Zhou Dynasty, but the first imperial academy was not officially established until 124 BC during the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty. Teachers of the imperial academy were called “grand academicians” (literarily “scholars of broad learning”). They were well versed in Confucian classics, had rich teaching experience, and possessed both moral integrity and professional competence. Their students were called “students of the imperial academy” or “students of the grand academicians.” At its peak the imperial academy had 10,000 students.

The central governments of all subsequent dynasties, including the Ming and Qing, had an imperial academy or a similar institution of education, usually located in the capital. It had different names and systems in different dynasties. The imperial academy, the top institution of learning run by the central government, along with local institutions of education and private schools, formed a complete education system in ancient China. They were significant in disseminating the Confucian classics and ancient China’s mainstream values with Confucianism as its main school of thought.

引例 Citation:

◎臣愿陛下兴太学,置明师,以养天下之士。(《汉书·董仲舒传》)

(我希望陛下兴办太学,安排精通经书的老师,来培养天下的读书人。)

May I propose Your Majesty establish an imperial academy where teachers well versed in the Confucian classics can train students from all over the country. (The History of the Han Dynasty)

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