实相 – Chinese philosophy and culture

shíxiàng 实相

Bhūtatathatā / True Suchness

指万物如实的状态。由于佛教反对实有论,同时需提供一种关于真实的认识,因此佛教的真实勉强描述为如实的状态,而不是实际存在的事物。实相的观念在大乘佛教中尤受重视,并以万法空性为实相。既然一切没有可以被把握的自性,便没有可以作为实相的内容,而只能以“实相”指称智者能够观察到的实情。

Bhūtatathatā refers to the suchness of all existents. Buddhism rejects ontological claims but still needs to deal with reality. Therefore, Buddhist reality can be roughly described as a state of suchness rather than actuality. Bhūtatathatālies at the core of Mahayana Buddhism, where it is defined as the emptiness of all beings. Since the intrinsic nature of the beings can never be understood, there is nothing behind the concept “suchness.” Thus, bhūtatathatā refers to the reality that only the pandits can observe.

引例 Citation:

◎譬如真水精,黄物著中则随作黄色,青、赤、白色皆随色变。心亦如是,凡夫人内心想智力故,见诸法异相。观诸法实相,非空非不空,不有非不有。是法中深入不转,无所罣(guà)碍,是名度深法忍。(《大智度论》卷五)

(好比真正的水晶,拿黄色的东西放在当中它就变成了黄色;或是放青、红、白色,水晶都会随之而改变颜色。人的意识也是如此,普通人的意识因为妄想的缘故,只看到事物各自有不同的形象状态。而若理解诸法的如实状态,既非绝对的空也不是不空,既非真的存在也不是不存在。深入佛法的理解而不退转,对于任何事物都没有执著,这就叫做对甚深奥义的持受能力,它能够引致解脱。)

Take a piece of genuine crystal for example. If there is a yellow object inside, it appears yellow; if the object is replaced with a cyan, red, or white one, the color of the crystal changes accordingly. Likewise, the mind of a common man is confined to his own fantasy and intellect, and so he sees different appearances of things. However, things exist in a state of suchness, which means that they are neither absolutely empty nor non-empty and that they are neither really existent nor non-existent. If one studies the teachings in depth and does not regress or adhere to anything, one attains the receptivity to the profoundest message that leads to freedom. (The Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom)

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