宫调 – Chinese philosophy and culture

gōngdiào 宫调

Gongdiao (Musical Modes)

中国传统乐学将调式与音高结合,划分、命名音乐类型并描述其特性的基本理论。以宫、商、角、变徵、徵、羽、变宫等七声或其中五声、六声音阶中任何一声为主音,与其他乐音按一定的音程关系(相隔若干音度)组织在一起,均可构成一种调式,其中以宫声为主的调式称“宫”,以其他各声为主者称“调”。七种调式与黄钟、大吕等十二律相配,理论上可配得十二宫七十二调,共为八十四宫调。但在实际音乐中并不全用,如唐宋燕乐只用七宫,每宫四调,共有二十八宫调;南宋词曲音乐用七宫十二调;元代北曲用六宫十一调,南曲用五宫四调;明清以来,最常用者不过五宫四调。有些乐论家对不同宫调所表达的感情特点和适用场合做了规定。宫调理论对于词曲、戏剧、音乐创作具有指导和规范作用,可以运用于古代乐谱翻译,是中国艺术研究的一个重要课题。

Classical Chinese music theory combined tone and pitch to classify and name different types of music, as well as to describe their characteristics. The seven notes are known as gong (宫 corresponding to 1 in the numbered musical notation), shang (商 corresponding to 2), jue (角 corresponding to 3), bianzhi (变徵 corresponding to 4), zhi (徵 corresponding to 5), yu (羽 corresponding to 6) and biangong (变宫 corresponding to 7). Any one of them can be used as a major tune along with other notes set in particular intervals to form a mode. The mode with gong as the major note is called gong, the mode with the rest of the notes as major ones are called diao. The seven modes with the accompaniment of 12 temperaments can theoretically have 12 gongs and 72 diaos, altogether 84 modes of music. However, in practical music, not all the gongs and diaos were used. Only seven gongs with each having four tunes (all together 28 modes of music) were used for imperial court music in the Tang and Song dynasties. Seven gongs and 12 diaos were used for music to go along with poems in the Southern Song Dynasty. In the Yuan Dynasty, six gongs and 11 diaos were used for Northern music, and five gongs and four diaos were used for Southern music. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, only five gongs and four diaos were often used. Some music critics made rules for different gongs and diaos to be used for music for different occasions according to their characteristics. The theory of gongdiao played a role of direction and regulation in music creation for poems and operas and can be used to translate ancient music. It is an important subject for the study of ancient Chinese art.

引例 Citations:

◎律有七音,音立一调,故成七调十二律,合八十四调,旋转相交,尽皆和合。(《隋书·音乐志》)

(十二律之每一律都有七声,以七声之任意一声为主音形成一个调式,这样就有七调十二律,共得八十四宫调,不管主音怎么变化,调式与哪一律相配,奏出的乐音全都谐和动听。)

Every temperament has seven notes, any of which can be used as a major tune for a mode. Thus there are altogether 84 modes. No matter which note is the major tune and no matter to the accompaniment of which temperament, the music will be harmonious and pleasant to hear. (The History of the Sui Dynasty)

◎从来词曲之旨,首严宫调,次及声音,次及字格。(李渔《闲情偶寄·词曲部》)

(历来词曲的写作要领,首先要严格遵循宫调,其次要注意音韵,再次要注意词牌、曲牌的用字规定。)

When writing words and music, gongdiao must be followed in the first place, then sufficient attention should be paid to rhyme and rhythm, and finally standards should be followed in the use of words for composing lyric poems under the tune titles. (Li Yu: Occasional Notes with Leisure Motions)

◎词有三难:一、布局,繁简合宜难;二、宫调,缓急中拍难;三、修词,文质入情难。(丁耀亢《啸台偶著词例数则》)

(作词有三个难处:一是总体布局,难在繁简适度;二是宫调,难在缓急适中而又合拍;三是遣词造句,难在既要有文采内容又要符合人物的真情实感。)

There are three difficulties in composing a ci lyric poem: In composition, it is difficult to balance complexity and simplicity in an appropriate manner; in gongdiao, it is difficult to achieve the right tempo while maintaining harmony; in diction, it is difficult to present literary content in a manner that fully expresses the feelings of characters portrayed. (Ding Yaokang: Random Notes on the Principles of Playwriting at Xiaotai)

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