建安风骨- Chinese philosophy and culture

Jiàn’ān fēnɡɡǔ 建安风骨

The Jian’an Literary Style

又称“汉魏风骨”。指汉献帝建安年间(公元196—220年)至魏初这一时期的文学作品中由刚健悲慨的思想感情与清朗遒劲的文辞凝结而成的时代精神和总体风格。汉末政治动荡,战乱频繁,人民流离失所。这一时期的代表作家“三曹”(曹操、曹丕、曹植)、“七子”(孔融、陈琳、王粲、徐干、阮瑀、应玚、刘桢)和女诗人蔡琰等人,继承了汉乐府民歌的现实主义传统,在创作中多直面社会动乱,反映民生疾苦及个人怀抱,抒发了建功立业的理想和积极进取的精神,表现出刚健、向上的抱负和豪迈、悲慨的情怀。“建安文学”的总体风格是悲凉慷慨、风骨遒劲、华美壮阔,具有鲜明的时代特征和个性特征,形成了文学史上独特的“建安风骨”,从而被后人尊为典范,其中又以诗歌成就最为突出。

The Jian’an literary style, also known as the Han–Wei literary style, refers to the literary style from the Jian’an era (196–220) of the Han Dynasty to the early Northern Wei Dynasty, featuring powerful expression of passion, anxiety, and indignation. The final years of the Han Dynasty saw political turmoil, incessant wars, and displacement of people. Leading literary figures like Cao Cao, Cao Pi, and Cao Zhi, and the “Seven Masters,” i.e., Kong Rong, Chen Lin, Wang Can, Xu Gan, Ruan Yu, Ying Yang, and Liu Zhen, as well as female poet Cai Yan, inherited the realistic tradition of the folksongs of the Han Dynasty. In their writings, they dealt with subjects such as social upheaval, the suffering of the people, and the aspiration of individuals, expressing their creative spirit and resolve to pursue a noble cause. Their works demonstrate strength, courage and determination to overcome great odds. With a melancholy and powerful style that was magnificent, unique, and distinctive of its age, Jian’an literature emerged as a unique genre and came to be viewed by later generations as an outstanding literary style, with Jian’an poetry particularly highly regarded.

引例 Citation:

◎暨建安之初,五言腾踊,文帝、陈思,纵辔以骋节;王、徐、应、刘,望路而争驱;并怜风月,狎池苑,述恩荣,叙酣宴,慷慨以任气,磊落以使才。(刘勰《文心雕龙·明诗》)

(到了建安初期,五言诗创作空前活跃,魏文帝曹丕和陈思王曹植驰骋文坛;王粲、徐干、应玚、刘桢,随后奋力争先;他们都喜爱风月美景,游玩清池园囿,记述恩宠荣耀,叙写酣饮宴集,慷慨激昂地抒发豪气,洒脱直率地施展才情。)

In the early Jian’an era, the writing of poems in five-word lines gained unprecedented popularity, with Cao Pi (Emperor Wen of Wei) and Cao Zhi (Prince Si of Chen) dominating the literary scene. Other leading poets at the time include Wang Can, Xu Gan, Ying Yang, and Liu Zhen. They enjoyed beautiful scenery, particularly lakes and gardens as well as feasting and drinking; and they wrote about their sentiments and ambition in poems with passion and grace. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

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