当行 – Chinese philosophy and culture

dāngháng 当行

Professionalism

即内行、在行。最初用于诗歌评论,指诗歌创作完全契合诗歌的体制规范。后发展成为中国古典戏曲理论的重要术语。主要含义有二:其一,指戏曲语言质朴自然、浅显通俗,符合人物性格并适合舞台表演;其二,指戏曲中的角色创造及故事情景,真实传神,具有强烈的艺术感染力,能让观众沉浸其中。在明代戏曲理论中,“当行”经常与“本色”连用,能当行、具本色的戏曲作品就是上乘佳作。

The expression was first used in poetry criticism to mean that a poem fully met poetic stylistic standards. It later became an important term in Chinese classical operatic theory. It has two meanings. One is that the language used by a character in a play is simple, natural, easy to understand, and appropriate for the character. The other is that characters and plot of the play are true to life with a strong artistic attraction. In Ming-dynasty operatic theory, “professionalism”and “being true to life” are often used together to describe outstanding opera works.

引例 Citations:

◎曲始于胡元,大略贵当行不贵藻丽。(凌濛初《谭曲杂札》)

(戏曲从元代开始,大体上重视通俗浅显,不重视辞藻华丽。)

Beginning in the Yuan Dynasty, professional simplicity, rather than flowery rhetoric, has gained popularity as an operatic style. (Ling Mengchu: Miscellaneous Notes on Opera)

◎行家者随所妆演,无不摹拟曲尽,宛若身当其处,而几忘其事之乌有,能使人快者掀髯,愤者扼腕,悲者掩泣,羡者色飞。是惟优孟衣冠,然后可与于此。故称曲上乘,首曰当行。(臧懋循《元曲选序二》)

(行家根据自己所扮演的角色,无不摹拟相似,曲尽其妙,好像完全置身其中,忘记了所表演的事情并不是真的,能够让人在快乐时胡须张开,在愤怒时握紧手腕,在悲伤时掩面哭泣,在羡慕时神色飞动。只有优孟那样的艺人,才能达到这种效果。因此,说到戏曲上乘,首要的标准就是当行。)

Professional actors can play their roles so vividly as if they were the characters themselves, forgetting that the story is fictional. Their performances can make viewers so happy that their beards will fly up, or make them so angry that they will wring their wrists, or make them so sad that they will sob, or inspire them so much that they will become thrilled. Only artists like Youmeng can create such effect. Therefore, for an opera to be outstanding, it first and foremost must be professional. (Zang Maoxun: Second Foreword to Selected Works of Yuan Opera)

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *