思与境偕 – Chinese philosophy and culture

sī yǔ jìnɡ xié 思与境偕

Blend Sentiment with Scenery

指诗人的主观情思与作品所描绘的客观景物浑融一体。为唐司空图(837—908)评论同时期诗人王驾五言诗作的用语。“思”指诗人的思想、思绪、情感等;“境”指与审美主体相对的客观景物,也指作品所创造的审美意境;“偕”是齐等合一。心中的“思”,与外在的“境”观照合一,从而泯灭了主客体之间的界限,呈现为诗中浑融一体的意境。“思与境偕”被后世批评家看作意境理论的核心。

This term refers to blending a poet’s own sentiments with the scenery depicted in his poem. It was first used by Tang Dynasty poetry critic Sikong Tu (837-908) when he commented on the five-character-per-line poems by Wang Jia of the same period. Si (思 sentiments) here means the poet’s thoughts, emotion, and moods, whereas jing (境 scenery) is external scenery as well as the artistic ambience created by the poem. Xie (偕 blending) means the oneness of external things and the poet’s inner world. When the poet’s sentiments and the scenery come together, the boundary between subjectivity and objectivity disappears, and a perfect unity in the art of poetry is achieved. Later critics regarded this idea as the core conception of artistic theory.

引例 Citations:

◎然河汾蟠郁之气,宜继有人。今王生者,寓居其间,浸渍益久,五言所得,长于思与境偕,乃诗家之所尚者。(司空图《与王驾评诗书》)

(然而黄河、汾河的山川秀气长年在该地区盘绕积蓄,理应还会有杰出的诗人出现。现在的王驾,居住在此,濡染浸淫在其中很久了,他写的五言诗有所成就,长于思与境偕,这是诗人所推崇的。)

The captivating landscape of the Yellow River and Fenhe River region should produce outstanding poets. Our contemporary Wang Jia lives here. He has long been immersed in this atmosphere. This has given his five-character poems a chance to excel. He is good at blending sentiment with scenery, thus winning recognition from many other poets. (Sikong Tu: Letter to Wang Jia with Comments on Poetry Writing)

◎文学之事,其内足以摅(shū)己,而外足以感人者,意与境二者而已。上焉者意与境浑,其次,或以境胜,或以意胜。(樊志厚《〈人间词乙稿〉序》)

(文学创作之事,向内足以抒发自己的思想情感,向外足以感动别人,是因为有“意”与“境”二者罢了。上等的作品是“意”与“境”浑然一体,次一等的作品或是在“境”上胜出,或是在“意”上胜出。)

A piece of literary creation voices one’s emotions and thoughts; but it moves others because it blends sentiment with scenery. A good poem features a perfect union between these two factors, whereas other poems excel either in sentiment or scenery. (Fan Zhihou: A Preface to Script II of Wang Guowei’s Poetic Remarks in the Human World)

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