悌 – Chinese philosophy and culture

tì 悌

Fraternal Duty

弟弟对兄长的顺从与敬爱,也作“弟”。在言行上,“悌”要求为人弟者顺从、遵循兄长的教导与命令。“悌”应植根于弟弟内心对兄长的亲爱与敬重。儒家常将“悌”与“孝”并称,认为“孝悌”是个人德行养成的基础,并将其作为维系与强化家庭伦理乃至政治秩序的根本。

Fraternal duty is obedience to, and love and respect for one’s elder brother. To observe this, the younger brother must follow an elder brother’s guidance and orders. Fraternal duty should be rooted in the heartfelt love and respect for an elder brother. Confucians often speak of “fraternal duty” and “filial piety” together, believing that together they are the foundation for cultivating personal moral integrity, and are the basis for maintaining and strengthening family ethics, extending even to the political order.

引例 Citations:

◎有子曰:“其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!”(《论语·学而》)

(有子说:“一个人为人处世孝敬父母、敬爱兄长,却喜欢触犯上级,这是很少见的;不喜欢触犯上级,而喜欢作乱的,这是从来没有的。君子致力于为人处世的根本,根本确立了,符合道义的言行即可产生。孝悌,就是仁德的根本。”)

Youzi said, “Of those who practice filial piety and fraternal duty, few are likely to offend their superiors. Of those who are unlikely to offend their superiors, none have been fond of stirring up trouble. A man of virtue is devoted to the fundamentals of good behavior. That being established, words and deeds are produced in accordance with moral principles. Filial piety and fraternal duty are the basis of benevolence.” (The Analects)

◎孝者,所以事君也;弟者,所以事长也;慈者,所以使众也。(《礼记·大学》)

(孝,可以用来侍奉君主;悌,可以用来侍奉长者;慈,可以用来任使民众。)

Filial piety is practiced in service of the sovereign. Fraternal duty is practiced in service of elders and senior officials. Compassion is practiced in directing the populace. (The Book of Rites)

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