情兼雅怨 – Chinese philosophy and culture

qínɡ jiān yǎ yuàn 情兼雅怨

A Mixed Quality of Grace and Sorrow

诗歌既表达了诗人的怨苦情感,又不违背雅正的审美标准。这是南朝著名文学理论家钟嵘(468?—518)提出的评判诗歌好坏的标准之一。钟嵘从艺术角度评价曹植(192—232)的诗“情兼雅怨”,其意强调诗歌要抒发诗人内心的怨苦,但这种情感的宣泄一定要适度,符合雅正标准。对于“雅怨”的具体解释,则存在不同看法:一种认为“雅怨”就是“雅正之怨”,重心在“怨”,说曹植的诗虽然抒发了受压抑的怨苦,但诗风温厚平和,符合“雅”的要求;另一种认为“雅”“怨”是并立的概念,说曹植的诗同时兼有雅正与怨苦两种艺术特点。不管哪种理解,钟嵘的“情兼怨雅”说,既是对陆机(261—303)“诗缘情”理论的发展,也是对传统诗歌理论“发乎情,止乎礼义”所作的进一步说明。

Poetry should express a poet’s grief while not violating the aesthetic rule of proper grace. First raised by the renowned Southern Dynasties literary theorist Zhong Rong (468?-518), this is an important criterion used to judge the merit of poetry. Proceeding from an artistic perspective, Zhong deemed poems by Cao Zhi (192-232) as “having a mixed quality of grace and sorrow.” He stressed that a poet should guard against excess emotion and obey the rule of proper grace. As for how to understand the notion of “graceful sorrow,” there are two somewhat different interpretations. According to the first, the emphasis of that notion is on sorrow; namely, Cao’s poems seek to voice suppressed grief, despite a restrained, proper style of expression. The second interpretation says that “grace” and “sorrow” here are of equal weight, insisting that Cao’s poems are both aggrieved and graceful. No matter what, Zhong’s theory enhanced Lu Ji’s (261-303) idea of “poetry as a natural outcome of feelings” to a new level and elaborated on the traditional theory that “feelings should be controlled by ritual propriety.”

引例 Citations:

◎魏陈思王植诗,其源出于国风,骨气奇高,词彩华茂,情兼雅怨,体被文质,粲溢今古,卓尔不群。(钟嵘《诗品》)

(魏陈思王曹植的诗可以溯源于《诗经》中的国风,格调气魄极高,文采华丽繁茂,情感兼具雅正与怨苦,文采与内容统一,光辉灿烂超越古今,不与众人为伍。)

Poems by Cao Zhi, are profoundly influenced by “Ballads from the States” of The Book of Songs. They are majestic and beautiful in style, with a mixed quality of grace and sorrow. Content and form fit together seamlessly. Cao Zhi thus puts all past poetic endeavors to shame and boasts a remarkable edge over his contemporaries. (Zhong Rong: The Critique of Poetry)

◎《国风》好色而不淫,《小雅》怨诽而不乱,若《离骚》者,可谓兼之矣。

(《史记·屈原贾生列传》)

(《国风》虽然描写爱恋情欲,但是并不放纵;《小雅》虽有怨恨与批评,但并不煽动祸乱。至于屈原的《离骚》,可以说兼有《国风》和《小雅》的美。)

“Ballads from the States” express passionate love without indulgence. “Minor Court Hymns” make complaints and criticisms without inciting trouble. As for Li Sao by Qu Yuan, it combines the aesthetic merits of both “Ballads from the States” and “Minor Court Hymns.” (Records of the Historian)

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