情发于声 – Chinese philosophy and culture

qínɡ fā yú shēnɡ 情发于声

Feelings Find Expression in Musical Poetry.

当人们受到外界事物的触发,情感在心里激荡,就会用诗歌表现这种情感并用一定的音乐旋律咏唱出来。见于《毛诗序》。这是中国古代关于诗歌起源的一种说法,与《尚书》中的“诗言志”大体接近且一脉相承。在上古时代,诗歌、音乐、舞蹈三位一体,密不可分,“情发于声”体现了上古诗歌的主要特点。到了后来,诗歌逐渐成为单纯的语言艺术,与音乐、舞蹈脱节,“情发于声”的说法也就退出历史舞台了。

When feelings surge up in people’s hearts due to inspiration from external objects, they will find expression in poetry and music. This is stated in “Preface to Mao’s Version of The Book of Songs,” echoing the idea of “writing poetry to voice one’s aspiration” documented in The Book of History. In pre-Qin China, poetry, music and dance were all closely linked together, even merged into one. This idea reflected the special features of that era. Later, poetry became an independent art of language, divorced from music and dance. Thus, the idea took leave from the literary scene.

引例 Citations:

◎诗者,志之所之也,在心为志,发言为诗。情动于中而形于言,言之不足,故嗟叹之,嗟叹之不足,故永歌之,永歌之不足,不知手之舞之足之蹈之也。情发于声,声成文谓之音。(《毛诗序》)

(诗是人们情感意志的表达,藏在心里则为情感意志,用语言把它表达出来就是诗歌。情感在心中激荡而用语言表达出来,用语言还表达不尽,便加上嗟叹的声音,嗟叹还不尽情,就放开喉咙吟唱出来,吟唱仍感不足,于是不知不觉手舞足蹈起来。感情在心里激荡,就会表现为声音,声音按五音的高低组成旋律就成了音乐。)

Poetry is an expression of a person’s feelings and aspirations. When hidden in his heart, it is just his feelings and aspirations. When put forth through the medium of words, it becomes what is known as poetry. Feelings are expressed in language. Then if language is insufficient, he will start to hum and sigh. If even that fails to fully express himself, he will burst into song, accompanied sometimes by rhythmical bodily movements. When feelings surge up in his heart, they will naturally find expression via sounds. All five notes of varying heights thus form a harmonious melody. (Preface to Mao’s Version of The Book of Songs)

◎大凡人之感于事,则必动于情,然后兴于嗟叹,发于吟咏,而形于歌诗矣。(白居易《策林·六十九·采诗以补察时政》)

(一般来说,人们受外界事物感动,就必然激发内心的情感,随之而发出嗟叹的声音,并用音乐将这种感情吟唱出来,于是就产生了可以歌唱的诗。)

Normally, when a person is moved by external objects or scenery, a feeling will spring up from deep within, thus producing the sound of humming and sighing. Then he will express such a feeling through chanting; hence a poem which can be sung out loud. (Bai Juyi: Collection of Essays in Preparation for the Final Round of the Imperial Examination)

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