意不称物,文不逮意- Chinese philosophy and culture

yì bù chèn wù, wén bù dài yì 意不称物,文不逮意

Ideas Cannot Match Actual Things and Words Cannot Fully Express Ideas.

人的心意或文章的构意不能完全反映事物的情状,而文章的语言或文辞又无法完全表达内心的想法。这是西晋陆机(261—303)《文赋》中对创作心理的描述和分析,具体所指是:由外物激发的意念或创作想法丰富而不明确,作者难以完全把握由外物所激发的全部心意,所捕捉到的可能只是其中一部分;而语言又难以将它们完全表达出来,更不可能穷尽由外物激发或与外物关联的全部意蕴。在认识及实践领域,主体对外物产生明确的认识或意愿,语言能够比较明确地记录认识并表达意愿,而文学创作则常常存在词不达意、言不尽意的难题。这也表明文学阐释较之学术经典解释具有更大的空间。陆机揭示了文学创作与接受的特征,推动了文学自觉。

This happens when inner thoughts or a written text’s general idea cannot fully reflect the actual state of things, and when diction cannot fully express inner thoughts. It is a description and analysis of the psychology of writing by Lu Ji (261-303) of the Western Jin Dynasty in his literary theoretic work, “The Art of Writing.” Specifically, inner thoughts or creative ideas triggered by external things can be diverse yet ambiguous and the author grasps only some of these. Language, too, has difficulty in expressing them fully, not to mention all the implications triggered by or related to external things. In the domain of everyday human cognition and practice, language can, by and large, clearly record the subject’s thoughts and express his wishes with regard to external things. But in literary creation, words often fail to do so. This also explains why literary interpretation enjoys greater latitude than purely academic interpretation. Lu Ji revealed this essential characteristic of literary creation and reception, thus promoting the development of literature under its own standards.

引例 Citation:

◎恒患意不称物,文不逮意,盖非知之难,能之难也。(陆机《文赋》)

(自己经常苦于人的心意或文章构意不能完全反映事物的情状,而语言或文章的文辞又无法完全表达内心的想法。大概这个问题,认识它并不难,解决它却很难。)

Inner thoughts or an article’s general idea cannot fully reflect the actual state of things, and diction cannot fully express inner thoughts – a predicament I often find myself in. It is far easier to recognize this problem than solve it. (Lu Ji: The Art of Writing)

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