文界革命 – Chinese philosophy and culture

wénjiè ɡémìnɡ 文界革命

The Revolution in the Literati Circle

中国近代发生的一场以语言文学革新为内容的文化活动。1899年,梁启超(1873—1929)有感于戊戌变法失败、国民精神亟须提升,转而寻求以变革文章的方式输入欧美新思想,启蒙、教化国民,以达到革新思想的目的。“文界革命”所针对的主要是桐城派古文及骈文,变言文分离为言文合一,采用新文体、新词句,传达先进的西方思想观念。梁启超自创新文体,大量使用俗语、外国文法,笔锋充满感情,对于“文界革命”起到了引领作用。“文界革命”与“诗界革命”“小说界革命”是相同主题的文风改革诉求,促进了白话文的广泛应用,直接启发了“五四”时期的文学革命,为白话诗文成为文坛主导开辟了道路。

The Revolution in the Literati Circle, which took place in early modern China, was a cultural movement aimed at transforming classical Chinese language and literature. In 1899, Liang Qichao (1873-1929), frustrated by the failure of the Reform Movement of 1898, saw an urgent need to reform and uplift the national character of the Chinese people. He used writing to introduce new ideas from the West, hoping that this would help enlighten and educate his fellow countrymen and change their ways of thinking. One target of this revolution was the Tongcheng School of literary prose, which was founded by some natives of Tongcheng County, Anhui Province in the early years of the Qing Dynasty. Another target was Pianwen, rhythmical prose characterized by parallelism and ornateness. This revolution aimed to merge classical oral Chinese and classical written Chinese into one form and use a new style and wording to convey modern Western concepts and ideas. Liang Qichao created a new style by employing many colloquial expressions and the grammar of foreign languages. His writings were full of emotion. The Revolution in the Literati Circle shared goals of the Revolution in the Circle of Poets and the Revolution in the Circle of Fiction Writers: to promote a reform in the style of writing. It enhanced the popularity of vernacular Chinese, inspired the literary revolution of the May 4th period (1919), and paved the way for vernacular poetry and prose to gain dominance in the Chinese literary writing.

引例 Citations:

◎德富氏为日本三大新闻主笔之一,其文雄放隽快,善以欧西文思入日本文,实为文界别开一生面者,余甚爱之。中国若有文界革命,当亦不可不起点于是也。(梁启超《夏威夷游记》)

(德富苏峰是日本三大新闻主笔之一,他的文章雄奇奔放、隽永轻快,善于把西方欧洲的作文方法引入日本文章中,确实为文学界另外开辟了新局面,我特别喜欢他的文章。中国如果有文界革命,应当也是不可不以此作为起点。)

Tokutomi Sohō is one of Japan’s three great journalists. His writing is free, unrestrained, profound and graceful in style, incorporating the Western way of writing into Japanese literature. He created a new horizon for the literati circle. I love his writing. If a literary revolution is ever to happen in China, this should be the way it starts. (Liang Qichao: My Days in Hawaii)

◎启超夙不喜桐城派古文,幼年为文,学晚汉魏晋,颇尚矜炼,至是自解放,务为平易畅达,时杂以俚语韵语及外国语法,纵笔所至不检束,学者竞效之,号新文体。老辈则痛恨,诋为野狐。然其文条理明晰,笔锋常带情感,对于读者,别有一种魔力焉。(梁启超《清代学术概论》)

(我从来不喜欢桐城派的古文,小时候写文章,学习汉末魏晋时人所写的文章,很崇尚严谨而精练的风格,到现在自我解放了,务必做到平易流畅,有时夹杂一些俚俗语、押韵词句及外国语法,信笔所至不加约束,学者竞相仿效,称为新文体。老一辈的人则痛恨这种文风,诋毁为“野狐禅”。然而我写的文章条理明晰,笔端常常带有感情,对于读者来说,别有一种吸引人的魔力。)

I never liked the Tongcheng style of prose. When writing while I was a boy, I imitated the style of Wei and Jin literati and adored their meticulous and concise way of writing. Now that we have liberated ourselves, we can pursue ease and facility by using some slang, rhyming expressions, and foreign grammar. I am uninhibited in my writing. Many scholars take pride in imitating me, calling my writing a “fresh and new style.” People of the older generation, however, hate it, deriding it as being “shamelessly deviant.” But what I write is logical, well laid-out and full of passion. It has a magical appeal to my readers. (Liang Qichao: An Outline of Qing Dynasty Academic History)

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