智 – Chinese philosophy and culture

zhì 智

Intelligence

“智”的基本含义是聪明、智慧,本作“知”。“智”的意义主要体现在对是非、利害做出明晰的认知与判断。“智”既是对外在的人与事的认知,也包括对自身的反省。儒家主张,应恰当地发挥“智”的作用,使人们不为复杂的现实因素所迷惑,从而做出符合道德、礼法的选择。而对“智”的过度依赖,则会导致以智巧、欺诈的手段行事,因此道家对于“智”持警惕、批评的态度。

Zhi (智), originally written as zhi (知 a different Chinese character representing knowing), means intelligence. It suggests clear cognition and good judgment of right and wrong, advantage and disadvantage. Intelligence shows both one’s awareness of other people and events as well as one’s ability to conduct introspection. Confucianism believes that people should have intelligence so as not to be confused by complexities of life and be able to act in conformity with ethical and ritual standards. However, excessive use of intelligence may lead to deception and fraud. Therefore, Daoists tend to view intelligence with suspicion and disapproval.

引例 Citations:

◎恻隐之心,仁之端也;羞恶之心,义之端也;辞让之心,礼之端也;是非之心,智之端也。(《孟子·公孙丑上》)

(恻隐之心是仁的端始,羞耻厌恶之心是义的端始,辞让之心是礼的端始,辨明是非之心是智的端始。)

Compassion gives rise to benevolence; detestation leads to righteousness; deference fosters propriety, and good judgment of right and wrong creates intelligence. (Mencius)

◎故以智治国,国之贼;不以智治国,国之福。(《老子·六十五章》)

(因此用巧智来治理国家,是国家的祸患;不用巧智来治理国家,是国家的福祉。)

He who governs with overuse of intelligence brings peril to the country; he who governs without overuse of intelligence brings prosperity to it. (Laozi)

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