李白《蜀道难》 – Li Bai poems in chinese and english

Li Bai was deeply influenced by the thoughts of Huang Lao Lie Zhuang, and his “Li Taibai Collection” was handed down to the world. Most of his poems were written when he was drunk. His representative works include “Wanglu Mountain Waterfall”, “Difficulties in Traveling”, “Difficulties in Shu Road”, “Jiang Entering Wine”, and “Mingtang” “Fu”, “Early Delivery of Baidi City” and many other poems.

 

蜀道难[1]

噫吁嚱[2],

危乎高哉!

蜀道之难,

难于上青天!

蚕丛及鱼凫[3],

开国何茫然[4]!

尔来[5]四万八千岁[6],

不与秦塞[7]通人烟[8]。

西当[9]太白有鸟道[10],

可以横绝[11]峨眉巅。

地崩山摧壮士死[12],

然后天梯[13]石栈[14]相钩连。

上有六龙回日[15]之高标,

下有冲波[16]逆折[17]之回川[18]。

黄鹤之飞尚不得过,

猿猱[19]欲度愁攀援。

青泥[20]何盘盘[21],

百步九折[22]萦[23]岩峦[24]。

扪参历井[25]仰胁息[26],

以手抚膺[27]坐[28]长叹。

问君西游何时还?

畏途[29]巉岩[30]不可攀。

但见悲鸟号古木,

雄飞雌从绕林间。

又闻子规啼夜月,

愁空山。

蜀道之难,

难于上青天,

使人听此凋朱颜。

连峰去[31]天不盈尺,

枯松倒挂倚绝壁。

飞湍[32]瀑流争喧豗[33],

砯崖[34]转石万壑雷。

其险也如此,

嗟尔远道之人胡为[35]乎来哉!

剑阁峥嵘而崔嵬[36],

一夫当关,

万夫莫开。

所守或匪亲[37],

化为狼与豺。

朝避猛虎,

夕避长蛇,

磨牙吮血,

杀人如麻。

锦城[38]虽云乐,

不如早还家。

蜀道之难,难于上青天,

侧身西望长咨嗟[39]!

《蜀道难》是李白首屈一指的名篇,大约是公元730年他第一次到长安时写的。如果说《长相思》是借美人写慕君之情,那《蜀道难》就是借山川之景来抒写报国无门之心了。蜀道指的是上长安的青云路,所以诗一开始,诗人长吁短叹,先用神话传说写开国之难。接着写山川险峻,连黄鹤都不能飞过太白峰,暗示自己不能青云直上。又写青泥岭盘旋曲折,暗示仕途艰难,诗人只有抚胸长叹。再借“问君”引出旅愁:“连峰去天不盈尺”,形容山峰之高;“枯松倒挂倚绝壁”,衬托绝壁之险。然后由静入动,写水石激荡、山谷轰鸣。最后写到剑阁,其实是借喻朝廷要津,所守非人,必为祸害。朝避猛虎,夕避长蛇,也是借喻朝廷上下的恶势力。所以这是一首借景写情的政治抒怀诗。

注释:

[1]蜀道难:南朝乐府旧题,属《相和歌·瑟调曲》。

[2]噫(yī)吁(xū)嚱(xī):惊叹声,蜀方言,表示吃惊。

[3]蚕丛、鱼凫(fú):传说是古蜀国两位国王之名,但无从取证。

[4]何茫然:何:多么。茫然:完全不知道的样子。指对传说中古代历史悠远难详,不甚了解。

[5]尔来:自那时以来。

[6]四万八千岁:表示时间漫长,此处手法夸张。

[7]秦塞(sài):指秦地。秦地四周山川险阻,故称“四塞之地”。

[8]通人烟:人员来往。

[9]西当:在西边的。当:在。

[10]鸟道:指连绵高山间的隙口,只有鸟能飞过,人迹不能至此。

[11]横绝:横越。

[12]地崩山摧壮士死:《华阳国志·蜀志》:相传秦惠王想征服蜀国,知道蜀王好色,答应送给他五个美女。蜀王派五位壮士去接人。回到梓潼的时候,看见一条大蛇进入穴中,一位壮士抓住了它的尾巴,其余四人也来相助,用力往外拽。不多时,山崩地裂,壮士和美女都被压死。

[13]天梯:异常陡峭的山路。

[14]石栈(zhàn):栈道。

[15]六龙回日:《淮南子》注云:“日乘车,驾以六龙。羲和御之。日至此面而薄于虞渊,羲和至此而回六螭。”,意思就是传说中的羲和驾驶着六龙之车(即太阳)到此处便迫近虞渊(传说中的日落处)。

[16]冲波:水流冲击腾起的波浪,这里指激流。

[17]逆折:水流回旋。

[18]回川:有漩涡的河流。

[19]猿猱(náo):蜀山中最善攀援的猴类。

[20]青泥:青泥岭,在今甘肃徽县南,陕西略阳县北。

[21]盘盘:形容回旋曲折的样子。

[22] 百步九折:形容道路极其曲折。

[23] 萦(yínɡ):盘绕。

[24] 岩峦:山峰。

[25] 扪(mén)参(shēn)历井:参、井是二星宿名。扪,用手摸。历,经过。

[26] 胁息:屏住呼吸。

[27] 膺(yīnɡ):胸。

[28] 坐:徒,空。

[29] 畏途:可怕的路途。

[30] 巉(chán)岩:指山壁高耸陡峭。

[31]去:距离。

[32]飞湍(tuān):飞奔而下的急流

[33]喧豗(huī):喧闹声,这里指急流和瀑布撞击发出的巨大声响。

[34]砯(pīng)崖:水与石撞击的巨响。砯,急流冲击石壁发出的声响,这里用作动词,冲击。

[35]胡为:为什么。

[36]峥嵘、崔(cuī)嵬(wéi):都是形容山势雄伟高峻的样子。

[37]或匪(fěi)亲:假使不是值得信赖的人。匪,同“非”。

[38]锦城:古代成都以产棉闻名,朝廷曾经在此设官,收购棉织品,故名。

[39]咨(zī)嗟:叹息。

Hard Is the Road to Shu[1]

Oho!Behold!

How steep!

How high!

The road to Shu is harder than to climb to the sky.

Since the two pioneers

Put the kingdom in order,

Have passed forty-eight thousand years,

And few have tried to pass its border.

There’s a bird track o’er Great White Mountain to the west,

Which cuts through Mountain Eyebrows by the crest.

The crest crumbled,five serpent-killing heroes slain,

Along the cliffs a rocky path was hacked then.

Above stand peaks too high for the sun to pass o’er;

Below the torrents run back and forth,churn and roar.

Even the Golden Crane can’t fly across;

How to climb over,gibbons are at a loss.

What tortuous mountain path Green Mud Ridge faces!

Around the top we turn nine turns each hundred paces.

Looking up breathless,I can touch the stars nearby;

Beating my breast,I sink aground with long,long sigh.

When will you come back from this journey to the west?

How can you climb up dangerous path and mountain crest,

Where you can hear on ancient trees but sad birds wail

And see the female birds fly,followed by the male?

And hear home-going cuckoos weep

Beneath the moon in mountains deep?

The road to Shu is harder than to climb to the sky,

On hearing this,your cheeks would lose their rosy dye.

Between the sky and peaks there is not a foot’s space,

And ancient pines hang,head down,from the cliff’s surface,

And cataracts and torrents dash on boulders under,

Roaring like thousands of echoes of thunder.

So dangerous these places are,

Alas!Why should you come here from afar?

Rugged is the path between the cliffs so steep and high,

Guarded by one

And forced by none.

Disloyal guards

Would turn wolves and pards.

Man-eating tigers at daybreak

And at dusk blood-sucking long snake.

One may make merry in the Town of Silk[2],I know,

But I would rather homeward go.

The road to Shu is harder than to climb to the sky,

I’d turn and westward look with long,long sigh.

注释:

[1]Present-day Sichuan Province.

[2]Chengdu,capital of Sichuan Province.

 

In Li Bai’s poems, imagination, exaggeration, metaphors, and personification are often combined to create magical, magnificent, and moving artistic conceptions. This is why Li Bai’s romantic poems are bold, unrestrained, and elegant.