檄移 – Chinese philosophy and culture

xíyí 檄移

Condemnation and Admonition

古代文体名称。“檄”即檄文,是战前誓师讨伐敌人的宣言;“移”即移文,多用于劝诫百姓移易不良风俗或不当言行的公告。南朝刘勰(465?—520)在《文心雕龙·檄移》中认为,檄文的作用是声讨敌人的罪过,鼓舞士气,赢得人民支持,打击敌人斗志,因此,在行文时一定要气势刚强,有理有据,表述清晰,可以运用夸饰、渲染甚至是诡诈的手法。而移文的作用是揭示内部存在的问题及危害,公开颁布命令要求改正,因为针对的是自己人,应该多一些宽容和理解;要就事论事,不要夸饰渲染;要直陈其事,不要拐弯抹角,更不要欺瞒。檄文和移文的共同点是在抨击罪恶现象和不良风气时均义正辞严,所持立场和态度是一致的。

This term means two types of imperial decrees in ancient times. Xi (檄) was an official condemnation of the enemy and an official rallying call to fight, whereas yi (移) was an admonition released to the public to advise people against improper speech and behavior. As Liu Xie (465?-520) remarked in his literary critique The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons, an imperial decree of condemnation was written to list atrocities committed by the enemy, boost soldiers’ morale, win popular support and demoralize enemy troops. Therefore, it was compelling and forceful, and well-articulated, supported by ample reasoning and proofs. Where necessary, overstatement, exaggeration or even deceitful wording can be employed in such a decree. An admonition, on the other hand, was written to expose problems or vices inside the empire, alert the public to their harmful effects and demand their timely rectification. Because an admonition was issued to one’s own subjects, it should be more compassionate and lenient in tone. An admonition should be factual, without pomposity or fanfare. It should get right to the heart of a problem rather than beating about the bush or even concealing the truth. A condemnation and an admonition share one thing in common: they were stern in denouncing evildoing and malpractices.

引例 Citations:

◎檄者,皦(jiǎo)也,宣露于外,皦然明白也。(刘勰《文心雕龙·檄移》)

(“檄”同“皦”,意思是说将事情、问题等公之于众,使之昭然明白。)

The character xi means bright and clear, as in “clear as daylight.” It is meant to clarify issues to the public. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

◎凡檄之大体,或述此休明,或叙彼苛虐;指天时,审人事,算强弱,角权势;标蓍龟于前验,悬鞶(pán)鉴于已然。(刘勰《文心雕龙·檄移》)

(但凡檄文,其主要特点是,或者表明我方的美好清明,或者列数敌方的苛刻残暴;指明天时,审察人事,对比双方力量强弱,衡量权势大小;根据过往经验预测敌方的失败命运,以现成事例给予敌方警告。)

A decree of condemnation is written to declare that justice is on our side and to expose the brutal nature of the enemy. It should spell out the strategic environment, compare our strengths and weaknesses with those of the enemy, and warn the enemy about its doom by citing past examples. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

◎移者,易也,移风易俗,令往而民随者也。(刘勰《文心雕龙·檄移》)

(“移”同“易”,改易、转变的意思。移文的目的是移风易俗,命令所到之处,老百姓便随之改变。)

Yi (移) and yi (易) are two Chinese characters with almost the same sound interchangeable in this context, both meaning change. A decree of admonition aims to change improper customs and practices. Wherever such a decree reaches, people will obey it and change their customs. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

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