直 – Chinese philosophy and culture

zhí 直

Rectitude

“直”的基本含义是正直。具体而言,人们对“直”有两种不同的理解:其一,言行符合道德或礼法的要求,不因贪图个人的私利而行背德违法之事,即是“直”。不过由于人们对德礼的理解不同,对“直”的具体表现的认识也有所差异,甚至存在矛盾。其二,依据实情行事,不为迎合他人的期待或需求而隐瞒实情,也是“直”。

The basic meaning of “rectitude” is uprightness. More specifically, there are two interpretations of “rectitude.” The first interpretation refers to words and deeds that meet the moral standards or the rules of propriety. To be “upright” is to refrain from doing anything immoral or illegal for the sake of personal gain. However, because there are different understandings of morality and propriety, there are also different views, even conflicting ones, of how “rectitude” is manifested. The second interpretation of being “upright” is acting in accordance with facts and not concealing the truth in order to meet the expectations or needs of others.

引例 Citations:

◎子曰:“孰谓微生高直?或乞醯(xī)焉,乞诸其邻而与之。”(《论语·公冶长》)

(孔子言:“谁说微生高正直?有人向他求取醋,他[不说自己没有,而]从邻居那里要来醋给他。”)

Confucius asked, “Who said Weisheng Gao is upright? Someone asked him for vinegar, and (without saying he did not have any) he got some from his neighbor for the man.” (The Analects)

◎哀公问曰:“何为则民服?”孔子对曰:“举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。”(《论语·为政》)

(鲁哀公问道:“怎么做才能让百姓信服呢?”孔子答道:“将正直的人提拔起来放在邪曲的人之上,百姓就会信服;若是将邪曲的人提拔起来放在正直的人之上,百姓就不会信服。”)

Duke Ai of the State of Lu asked, “How can I win over the people?” Confucius replied, “If you promote upright people and put them above crooked ones, you will win over the people; if you promote crooked people and put them above upright ones, you will not win over the people.” (The Analects)

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