私名 – Chinese philosophy and culture

sīmíng 私名

Private Name

特殊事物的名称。“私名”是墨家所使用的一种名称类别。墨家注重对名的辨别,强调以恰当的名来指称事物,以实现名实相合。墨家将所用之名分为三类,即“达名”“类名”“私名”。“私名”是指称某一事物的专有名称,如某人之名,即用来专指特定的人。

“Private name” is a category used in the Mohist School for naming specific things. The Mohists stressed the importance of properly naming things in different ways to reflect their real nature. They had three ways to name things: unrestricted, classified, and private. “Private name” refers to the proper name for something, such as a person’s name that is used to refer to a specific individual.

引例 Citations:

◎名,达、类、私。(《墨子·经上》)

(名,分为达名、类名、私名。)

A “name” consists of the unrestricted, classified, or private. (Mozi)

◎命之臧,私也,是名也止于是实也。(《墨子·经说上》)

(命名为“臧”,是一个私名。名称应以其所指的实物为限。)

Naming someone “slave” is private. The name is limited to that particular person. (Mozi)

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