竟陵派 – Chinese philosophy and culture

Jìnglíng pài 竟陵派

The Jingling School of Literary Writing

明代后期的文学流派。因代表人物钟惺(1574—1624)、谭元春(1586—1637)都是竟陵(今湖北天门)人,故称为竟陵派,又称钟谭派。竟陵派重视作家个人的情性流露、反对复古模拟,与公安派主张相同,但他们又认为以袁宏道(1568—1610)等为代表的公安派作品俚俗、浮浅,因而倡导一种幽深孤峭的作品风格,主张文学创作应抒写“性灵”。竟陵派所宣扬的“性灵”,其实是为了追求新奇深奥、与众不同,而刻意雕琢字句,极力造成幽深孤峭、艰涩隐晦的诗歌风格。竟陵派对晚明以后的反拟古文风和小品文的大量产生有促进之功,但他们的创作题材狭窄、语言艰涩,束缚了这一派的发展。

This was a school of literary creation in the late Ming Dynasty represented by Zhong Xing (1574-1624) and Tan Yuanchun (1586-1637), who were both natives of Jingling (today’s Tianmen, Hubei Province). It was also known as the ZhongTan School. Like members of the Gong’an School of Literary Writing, the Jingling School valued the showing of a writer’s true feelings and character and opposed stubborn emulation of ancient literature. However, they regarded works of the Gong’an School represented by Yuan Hongdao (1568-1610) as slangy and shallow. They advocated a serene and solitary style, arguing that literary creation should express the “inner self.” But in fact, such an “inner self” pursues only novelty, abstruseness, and aloofness from ordinary mortals. The Jingling School paid excessive attention to wording, trying to create an atmosphere of solitude and profundity. Members of the school contributed to the resistance of stubborn emulation of ancient literature and the emergence of many refined, informal essays. However, the limitation of subject matter and abstruseness of language restrained their further development.

引例 Citation:

◎惺与同邑谭子元春忧之,内省诸心,不敢先有所谓“学古”“不学古”者,而第求古人真诗所在。真诗者,精神所为也。察其幽情单绪,孤行静寄于喧杂之中,而乃以其虚怀定力,独往冥游于寥廓之外。(钟惺《诗归·序》)

(我和同郡人谭元春很担心这种情况,我们在内心反思,不敢先存“学古”或者“不学古”的判断,只是探求古人的诗究竟“真”在哪里。所谓真诗,一定是心神活动的结果。考察这种心神活动,发现它实际是古人幽隐孤寂的情感流露以及在喧杂尘世中所保持的安静独行,它有一种特殊的虚怀和定力,使古人能够独游于苍穹之外。)

My fellow townsman Tan Yuanchun and I share the same worry. Even after much thought, we still hardly dare say whether to emulate ancient literature or not. What we attempt to do is to find out where the “true essence” of old-time poetry lies. True poetry has to be the outcome of spiritual activity. A careful examination of such activity would reveal that it shows the sentiments of ancient people in their reclusion and solitude, as well as the journey they quietly pursued regardless of the noise and bustle of the mortal world. True poetry has a magnanimous mind and quiet confidence; it enabled our ancestors to roam free beyond the horizon. (Zhong Xing: Preface to The Purport of Poetic Creation)

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