章句 – Chinese philosophy and culture

zhāngjù 章句

Textual Components / Zhang Ju (Annotation Work)

主要含义有二:其一,汉语诗文中字词、句、段、篇的统称。南朝刘勰(465?—520)《文心雕龙》重点从写作角度探讨围绕文章主题遣词造句、安排段落、形成篇章的一般原则与方法。刘勰在强调立意高的前提下要求章句精雕细琢,启示后人在写作中自觉揣摩文法,总结经验,展开文学批评和理论探讨。其二,为古代一种注释体著作名称,意思是分章析句,主要对儒家经典文本划分段落,解释其中的字词并串讲大意。如东汉王逸的《楚辞章句》、南宋朱熹(1130—1200)的《大学章句》《中庸章句》等。

This term has two meanings. First, it means words, sentences, paragraphs, or an entire text. In his literary critique, The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons, Liu Xie (465?-520) of the Southern Dynasties discussed the general principles and rules governing the wording, syntax, paragraphs arrangement and text composition in writing. While stressing the importance of writing for a worthy goal, he also called for meticulous depiction in terms of wording and textual composition. This provided a source of inspiration to writers of later generations to improve grammar, practice literary criticism and launch theoretical discussions on writing. Second, this term also means an ancient annotative work showing how to divide a text into paragraphs and analyze syntax. Such works discuss paragraph arrangement in the Confucian classics, explain the meanings of words and expressions, and offer a general interpretation of the text. Typical examples are Annotations on The Odes of Chu by Wang Yi of the Eastern Han Dynasty, as well as Annotations on The Great Learning and Annotations on The Doctrine of the Mean by Zhu Xi (1130-1200) of the Southern Song Dynasty.

引例 Citations:

◎空守章句,但诵师言,施之世务,殆无一可。(颜之推《颜氏家训·勉学》)

(空守着书卷,只会背诵老师的话,如果用之处理实际事务,只怕一点儿也派不上用场。)

If one can only recite words and sentences taught by the teacher, what he has learned is of little value in handling matters in real life. (Yan Zhitui: Admonitions for the Yan Clan)

◎夫人之立言,因字而生句,积句而成章,积章而成篇。篇之彪炳,章无疵也;章之明靡,句无玷也;句之清英,字不妄也:振本而末从,知一而万毕矣。(《文心雕龙·章句》)

(人们从事写作,总是由字词组成句子,由句子组成段落,由段落组成篇章。要想整篇文章绽放光彩,必须保证每个段落都没有缺陷;要想每个段落明白细密,必须保证每个句子都没有缺陷;要想每个句子清新优美,每个字词就不能乱用。树根摇动了枝叶一定跟着颤动,懂得这个基本道理,就能写好一切文章了。)

When writing, one starts with words and sentences; then he proceeds to build paragraphs, until a full text is composed. To make a piece of writing a good one, one should see that each paragraph is without flaws; to make each paragraph clear and well-organized, one should ensure that each sentence has no flaws; to make each sentence refreshing and beautiful, one should make careful use of each word or expression. It is just like when the roots of a tree are shaken, all the branches and leaves will tremble. Once this rule is observed, it will be easy to compose a good piece of writing. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

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