类名 – Chinese philosophy and culture

lèimíng 类名

Classified Name

同类事物的名称。“类名”是墨家所使用的一种名称类别。墨家注重对名的辨别,强调以恰当的名来指称事物,以实现名实相合。墨家将所用之名分为三类,即“达名”“类名”“私名”。“类名”是指称同一类事物的名称,如“马”之名。“马”用以指称马这个属类之下的一切马。

“Classified name” is a category used in the Mohist School for naming the same kind of things. The Mohists stressed the importance of properly naming things in different ways to reflect their real nature. They had three ways to name things: unrestricted, classified, and private. “Classified name” refers to the name for the same kind of things, such as the name “horse.” “Horse” is used to refer to horses of all different types.

引例 Citations:

◎名,达、类、私。(《墨子·经上》)

(名,分为达名、类名、私名。)

A “name” consists of the unrestricted, classified, or private. (Mozi)

◎命之马,类也,若实也者必以是名也。(《墨子·经说上》)

(命名为“马”,是一个类名。如有其实物必然要以相应的名来指称。)

Naming something “horse” is a kind of classification. If there is such an actual thing, we must use this name. (Mozi)

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