美刺 – Chinese philosophy and culture

měicì 美刺

Extolment and Satirical Criticism

赞美与讽刺批评。用于文学艺术领域,主要指用诗歌对统治者的品德、政令和作为进行赞美或讽刺批评。孔子最早指出“诗可以怨”,强调《诗经》具有抒发不满情绪的功用,确定了诗歌创作的基本功能。汉代的诗学则迎合统治者的需要,突出诗歌歌功颂德的功能。汉代诗学作品《毛诗序》和郑玄《诗谱序》将“美刺”确立为诗歌批评的基本原则之一,使之成为后世诗人和作家的自觉追求,是他们参与政治、干预社会生活的一种方式,从而构成中国文学的基本功用与重要特色。

This literary term is used in poetry to comment on a ruler’s moral character, policies, decrees, and performance, either in praise or criticism. Confucius was the first to point out that poetry could be used to vent resentment and thus established a basic function of poetry writing by emphasizing the role The Book of Songs played in voicing grievances. In the Han Dynasty, however, poetry tended to be used as a vehicle for extolling the accomplishments and virtues of rulers. In “Preface to Mao’s Version of The Book of Songs” and “Preface to On the Categories of The Book of Songs,” two influential writings on theory of poetry published during the Han Dynasty, extolment and satirical criticism was regarded as an underlying principle of poetic criticism. This principle was widely employed by poets and writers of later generations as a way of getting involved in politics and making their impact on the society. This constituted a fundamental function and an essential feature of Chinese literature.

引例 Citations:

◎论功颂德,所以将顺其美;讥刺过失,所以匡救其恶。(郑玄《诗谱序》)

([诗歌]歌颂朝廷功德,是为了让他们延续光大好的方面;讽刺批评其过失,是为了让他们匡救改正不好的方面。)

Poems are composed to applaud the rulers to continue to do what is good by extolling their achievements and virtues, and to urge them to change the erroneous course by satirizing and criticizing their wrong doings. (Zheng Xuan: Preface to On the Categories of The Book of Songs)

◎汉儒言诗,不过美刺两端。(程廷祚《青溪集·诗论十三·再论刺诗》)

(汉代儒者论说诗歌,不外乎赞美歌颂与讽刺批评两方面。)

To Confucian scholars in the Han Dynasty, poetry has two basic functions: extolment and satirical criticism. (Cheng Tingzuo: Qingxi Collection)

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