肌理 – Chinese philosophy and culture

jīlǐ

肌理

By “key concepts in Chinese thought and culture” we mean concepts and keywords or phrases the Chinese people have created or come to use that are fundamentally pertinent to Chinese philosophy, humanistic spirit, way of thinking, and values.


jīlǐ 肌理

Reasoning and Structure

本义指肌肉的纹理,引申指事物细密的条理。作为文学术语由清代翁方纲首先提出,兼指义理与文理两方面:义理是诗歌所阐述的道理或事理,主要指合乎儒家的思想和学问;文理是诗歌的条理或脉理,主要指诗歌的结构、格律和各种创作技法。明清以来,性灵派倡导文学抒发个体性情,摒弃教化;神韵派赞美诗歌意境的空灵玄虚。翁方纲反对这两种诗学主张,推崇宋诗的创作原则与方法,强调诗歌在义理上以经义为准绳,以学问为根底;文理上强调精细缜密,形式雅丽、穷形极变但要内容充实。清代乾嘉时期经学和考据之学盛行,肌理派就是在此背景下形成的诗派。翁方纲宣扬诗歌内容和形式的有机联系,推动了学人诗派的发展,但他一味鼓吹以学问考证作诗,受到同时代及后代文艺批评家的批评。

The term originally refers to the texture of muscle, and later by extension it refers to well-organized principles in things. As a literary term, it was first used by Weng Fanggang, a Qing-dynasty scholar, to refer to two aspects: yili (义理 reasoning) and wenli (文理 structure). The former is about views or reasoning, primarily concerning Confucian thinking and learning expressed in poetry; whereas the latter represents texture of poetry, especially poetic structures, metrical schemes and rhythms, and other techniques of writing. Scholars of the Xingling School (School of Inner Self) of the Ming and Qing dynasties advocated rejecting dogmatic guidelines and expressing one’s emotions and thoughts in literary works, while adherents of the Shenyun School (School of Elegant Subtlety) believed in subtlety and implicitness expressed through poetry. Criticizing both literary trends, Weng promoted the principles and techniques of the Song-dynasty poetry. In terms of yili, he emphasized the need to follow classical Confucian tradition and erudition. In terms of wenli, he advocated exquisite intricacy, attention to details, and graceful structures with a great many variations, as well as the need to convey a substantive message. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong and Emperor Jiaqing of the Qing Dynasty, a boom in the study of Confucian classics and textual research led to the emergence of the Jili School (School of Reasoning and Structure). Weng advocated integration of form and content in poetry, thus promoting the development of poetry based on classic learning. However, his overemphasis on classic scholarliness in poetry was criticized by scholars of both his age and later generations.

引例 Citations:

◎同之与异,不屑古今,擘肌分理,唯务折衷。(刘勰《文心雕龙·序志》)

(我不介意自己的见解与前人的见解是否相同,也不介意这些见解来自古人还是今人,只是通过对文章的条理和义理进行细致分析,力求找到不偏不倚、最为合理的看法。)

I don’t care if my views differ from those of others, nor do I care if the differing views are from ancient scholars or my contemporaries. What I do care is analyzing carefully the structure and reasoning of writings in order to arrive at a balanced view. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

◎义理之理,即文理之理,即肌理之理。(翁方纲《志言集序》)

(诠释儒家经典所追寻的“义理”中的“理”,实质上就是文章的道理和事理,也是文章的脉理和条理。)

Yili in Confucian classics is all about structure and reasoning in writing, i.e., the texture and proper presentation of writings. (Weng Fanggang: Preface to Collection of My Works)

◎士生今日,经籍之光盈溢于世宙,为学必以考证为准,为诗必以肌理为准。(翁方纲《志言集序》)

(士人生于这个年代,正值儒学繁荣昌盛,辉映世间,因此,做学问的人必以查考验证为标准,写诗的人必以遵循肌理为标准。)

Today’s men of letters are in an era when Confucian studies are flourishing. It is therefore imperative that scholars base their study on research and verification, and that poets focus on the structure and reasoning of their works. (Weng Fanggang: Preface to Collection of My Works)

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