诗界革命 – Chinese philosophy and culture

shījiè ɡémìnɡ 诗界革命

The Revolution in the Circle of Poets

中国近代发生的一场以诗歌革新为内容的文化运动,是“文界革命”的一部分。梁启超(1873—1929)首倡“诗界革命”,他在《夏威夷游记》中提出,写诗要汲取古人的风格体式,但必须有新的意境和语句。他反对旧体诗的语言晦涩与格律束缚,认为若不进行诗界革命,诗运就会断绝,主张新诗的语言应该通俗,应该承载新的思想、传播先进观念,以引导、教化国民。梁启超、黄遵宪(1848—1905)、严复(1854—1921)、夏曾佑(1863—1924)、谭嗣同(1865—1898)、邱炜萲(1874—1941)等人均写作新体诗,并在报刊上登载。“诗界革命”中产生的诗作总体上艺术成就不高,往往是旧体诗堆砌新名词,表达生硬,不伦不类,但其创新精神直接启迪了白话新诗。

The Revolution in the Circle of Poets was a cultural movement in early modern China. A part of the Revolution in the Literati Circle, it aimed to reform poetic expression. Liang Qichao (1873-1929) was the first one to champion this movement. In his work “My Days in Hawaii,” he argued that modern poetry should draw on the style and format of classical poetry, but it must also develop new artistic conception and expressions to depict contemporary life. He opposed the obscurity and formal restraints of classical Chinese poetry, arguing that without a revolution among poets, poetry in China would wither. He said that new poetry should be simple in language, convey new ideas, and disseminate modern values to enlighten people in China. Liang Qichao, Huang Zunxian (1848-1905), Yan Fu (1854-1921), Xia Zengyou (1863-1924), Tan Sitong (1865-1898), and Qiu Weixuan (1874-1941) all wrote poetry in modern Chinese and published their writings in newspapers and magazines. Generally speaking, verses written under the influence of the Revolution in the Circle of Poets did not have high artistic value. Rather, they were old in style but new in content, yet they did not make smooth reading. However, their creative spirit later gave rise to truly vernacular new poetry.

引例 Citations:

◎过渡时代,必有革命。然革命者,当革其精神,非革其形式。吾党近好言诗界革命。虽然,若以堆积满纸新名词为革命,是又满洲政府变法维新之类也。能以旧风格含新意境,斯可以举革命之实矣。苟能尔尔,则虽间杂一二新名词,亦不为病。不尔,则徒示人以俭而已。(梁启超《饮冰室诗话》)

(过渡时期,必须要有革命。然而革命,应当是革除其精神,而不是革除其形式。我们这些人最近喜好谈诗界革命。虽然这是对的,但是如果以为满篇堆积新名词就是革命,这又是清政府变法维新一类的做法了。能够用旧风格蕴含新意境,这才是倡举革命的实质。如果能做到这样,虽然夹杂一两个新名词,也不算弊病。做不到这样,不过是将内容的贫乏展示给别人看罢了。)

There bound to be a revolution during the transitional period, but the revolution is designed to eradicate the substance of old-style poetry, not its form. Nowadays, many of us like to talk about the need for a revolution among poets. That’s exactly right, but if we think the revolution means using a pile of newly-coined phrases, we will just turn ourselves into quasi-reformists like those in the Qing court. The goal of the revolution is to introduce a new vision in the old style. If this can be done, one modern phrase or two here and there in a poem will be no big problem. If not, the poet is only showing the poverty of content to his readers. (Liang Qichao: Notes on Poets and Poetry from the Ice-drinker’s Studio)

◎近世诗人能镕铸新理想以入旧风格者,当推黄公度。(梁启超《饮冰室诗话》)

(近一个时期的诗人,能够在旧的风格中融入新的思想观念的,应当推举黄遵宪。)

Among all poets today, Huang Zunxian figures prominently, because he incorporates new ideas into the old form. (Liang Qichao: Notes on Poets and Poetry from the Ice-drinker’s Studio)

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