豪放派 – Chinese philosophy and culture

háofànɡpài 豪放派

Haofang School / Bold and Unconstrained School

宋词两大流派之一。内容多写家国大事、人生情怀,其特点是境界壮阔宏大,气象豪迈雄放,常常运用诗文创作手法及典故,而且不拘音律。最先用“豪放”评词的是苏轼,南宋人已明确将苏轼、辛弃疾作为豪放词的代表。北宋范仲淹《渔家傲》词开豪放之先,经苏轼大力创作“壮词”而成一派词风。中原沦陷后,南宋政权偏安江南,不以收复失地为意,许多词人报国无望,因而逐渐形成慷慨悲壮的词风,产生了豪放派领袖辛弃疾及陈与义、叶梦得、朱敦儒、张元干、张孝祥、陆游、陈亮、刘过等一大批杰出词人。他们抒发报国情怀,将个体的命运与家国命运紧密联系在一起,进一步拓宽了词的表现领域,丰富了词的表现手法,大大提升了词在文学史上的地位。豪放派词人虽以豪放为主体风格,却也不乏清秀婉约之作,故不可一概而论。有些词作出现议论和用典过多、音律不精或过于散文化,也是毋庸讳言的。

This is one of the two ci (词) lyric schools of the Song Dynasty, which mainly dealt with major affairs of the nation and expresses noble aspirations. It featured broad vision and bold expression, often employing the methods of prose poetry and uninhibited by metric stereotypes. The first poet who used the term “bold and unconstrained” was Su Shi who, together with Xin Qiji, was widely acclaimed by Southern Song critics as the leading poets of this school. Northern Song writer Fan Zhongyan created this school with his ci lyric, A Fisherman’s Song, which grew into a major poetic style thanks mainly to Su Shi’s contribution. After the Central Plains fell to the Jin forces, the Song court fled south of the Yangtze River and was too weak to recover the lost territory. Many ci poets, led by Xin Qiji and supported by other prominent poets such as Chen Yuyi, Ye Mengde, Zhu Dunru, Zhang Yuangan, Zhang Xiaoxiang, Lu You, Chen Liang, and Liu Guo, expressed their longing to return to the north in verses of a stirring style. They voiced their patriotic sentiments and identified their own fate with that of the whole nation. They thus enriched ci lyrics’ ways of expression and greatly lifted its status in the history of literature. Although poets of this school wrote in the bold and unconstrained style, they occasionally wrote graceful and subtle ci poems. And some of their works contained too many commentaries and allusions, were careless about the use of metric schemes, and read more like prose than poetry.

引例 Citations:

◎词体大略有二:一体婉约,一体豪放。婉约者欲其辞情蕴藉,豪放者欲其气象恢弘。盖亦存乎其人,如秦少游之作多是婉约,苏子瞻之作多是豪放。大约词体以婉约为正。(张《诗余图谱》)

(词的风格大约有两种,一种是婉约,一种是豪放。婉约风格的词,其词句和情感追求含蓄之美,豪放词则追求气魄宏大。大概是由于作者的气质所致,如秦观的作品多是婉约之作,而苏轼的作品多是豪放之作。大致说来,词的风格以婉约为正宗。)

Ci lyrics can be divided into two types: the graceful and restrained vs. the bold and unconstrained. The first type of poems features subtle expression of one’s feelings, whereas the second type is far more explicit and has a broader vision. This distinction is due to different dispositions of poets. Qin Guan’s ci lyrics are mostly graceful and subtle, whereas Su Shi’s tend to be bold and exuberant. Generally, the graceful and restrained style follows more closely the original spirit of ci lyrics than the bold and unconstrained style. (Zhang Yan: The Metric Schemes of Ci Lyrics)

◎张南湖论词派有二:一曰婉约,一曰豪放。仆谓婉约以易安为宗,豪放惟幼安称首,皆吾济南人,难乎为继矣!(王士祯《花草蒙拾》)

(张论词派有二:一是婉约派,一是豪放派。我认为婉约派以李清照为第一,豪放派以辛弃疾为第一,他们都是我们济南人,之后就后继无人了。)

According to Zhang Yan, ci lyrics can either be graceful and restrained or bold and unconstrained. I believe that Li Qingzhao is the best of the former and Xin Qiji the best of the latter. They were both natives of Ji’nan. After them, no great ci poet has emerged in our province. (Wang Shizhen: Random Notes on Ci Poetry)

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