Tao Yuanming Poems: A Poor Scholar  (I) – 陶渊明《咏贫士  (七首其一)》

咏贫士
 (七首其一)

万族[1]各有托,孤云独无依。

暧暧[2]空中灭,何时见馀晖。

朝霞开宿雾,众鸟相与飞。

迟迟出林翮[3],未夕复来归。

量力守故辙,岂不寒与饥?

知音苟不存,已矣何所悲。

该首诗通过对古代贫士的歌咏,表现了诗人安贫守志、不慕名利的情怀。诗旨在最后4句的抒情,而可堪玩味的是前两层的景语。“万族各有托,孤云独无依”指万物各自都有依靠,高洁的贫士漂泊孤独没有依靠。诗人自喻为高洁的贫士,象征着诗人孤独无依的处境和命运。“众鸟相与飞”指众鸟匆匆结伴飞,暗喻众多趋炎附势之人依附新宋政权。“知音苟不存,已矣何所悲”指既然世上无知音,在贫困中终此一生,也没有什么可悲伤的,表现出诗人守志不阿的高洁志趣。

注释:

[1]万族:世间万物。族:类。

[2]暧暧:昏昏暗暗的样子。

[3]翮(hé):指鸟类翅膀。

A Poor Scholar
 (I)

Every thing has its resting place;

Alone the cloud’s drifting in vain.

Melting in air, it leaves no trace.

When can we see its glow again?

Morning clouds rise from mist of night,

All birds fly to welcome the day.

One in the woods is late in flight

But early on its homeward way.

I’ll keep to beaten track of yore,

Though from hunger and thirst not free.

There’re no connoisseurs any more.

Why should poverty sadden me?

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