Du Fu Poems: Departure from Changsha – 杜甫《发潭州》

发潭州[1]

夜醉长沙酒,

晓行湘水[2]春。

岸花飞送客,

樯燕[3]语留人。

贾傅才未有,

褚公[4]书绝伦。

名高前后事,

回首一伤神。

诗人因时局动乱,亲友尽疏,北归无望,只能泛舟漂泊。公元769年春诗人离开潭州赴衡州,作此诗。北归无望,前途渺茫,天涯飘零,客居舟中,这都是诗人所忧所愁,无可奈何下只有借酒消愁,沉醉而眠,天明之后,又不得不继续漂泊沦落。首联即流露无限辛酸。颔联从侧面抒发“世情薄,人情恶”的喟叹,然而诗人似乎不太在意这些:自有岸边飞花送我,桅上春燕殷勤留我。让诗人百感交集的,是他想到的被贬长沙的贾谊,和被贬潭州的书法名家褚遂良。历史上才智之士的命运何其相似,这让同样身处湘地的诗人情何以堪!于是诗人产生了情感的共鸣,所有的悲愤忧愁,所有的黯然神伤,都化作一句“往事哪堪回首”。

注释:

[1]潭州:地名,今湖南长沙一带。

[2]湘水:湘江。

[3]樯燕:立在船桅之上的燕子。

[4]贾傅、褚公:即汉代贾谊和唐代褚遂良。

Departure from Changsha

Drunken at night in Southern town,

I sail on vernal stream at dawn.

Fallen petals bid me adieu,

Swallows’ songs retain me anew.

A talent exiled long ago,

A good hand banished in woe.

What good to win a wide-spread fame?

Looking back, nothing’s left to blame.

《发潭州》是唐代诗人杜甫的作品。此诗首联紧扣题面,点明题意,蕴含着奔波无定、生计日窘的悲辛;颔联描写启程时的情景;颈联是用典抒情,写诗人登舟而行,百感交集,浮想联翩;尾联借古人以抒怀,直接抒发诗人沦落他乡、抱负不能施展的情怀。全诗在表现手法上,或托物寓意,或用典言情,或直接抒怀,句句含情,深切感人,为杜甫晚年的名作。

The first couplet of the poem is a poem written by Du Fu, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The first couplet of the poem is tightly focused on the subject, and it points out the meaning of the poem, implying the sorrow and hardship of being on the move and living in a difficult situation; the jaw couplet describes the scene when departing; the neck couplet is an allusion to the poet’s feelings and thoughts while boarding the boat; the last couplet draws on ancient people to express his feelings, directly expressing the poet’s feelings of being in another country and unable to realize his ambition. The poem is a masterpiece of Du Fu’s later years, with its expressive techniques, such as using objects to convey meaning, or using allusions to express emotions, or expressing his feelings directly.

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