Du Fu Poems: Dreaming of Li Bai  (I) – 杜甫《梦李白》

梦李白
(二首其一)

死别已吞声,

生别常恻恻[1]。

江南瘴疠[2]地,

逐客无消息。

故人入我梦,

明我长相忆。

君今在罗网[3],

何以有羽翼?

恐非平生魂,

路远不可测。

魂来枫林[4]青,

魂返关塞[5]黑。

落月满屋梁,

犹疑照颜色[6]。

水深波浪阔,

无使皎龙得!

公元758年李白流放夜郎,第二年春在白帝城遇赦,回到江陵。但是杜甫远在北方,不知此事,写了两首《梦李白》,这是第一首。这首记梦诗分别按梦前、梦中、梦后叙写。写梦之前先写别离,生离之前先说死别,以死别衬托生离,可见二人是生死之交。前四句写梦前,第五句不说梦见故人,却说故人入梦,而入梦又是有感于诗人的长久思念,可见二人思念之深。梦中乍见而喜,转念而疑,继而生出忧惧,对梦中心理的刻画,十分细腻逼真。梦魂归去,诗人依然思念不已,唯恐水深蛟龙作浪,诗魂再陷龙潭,的确是至诚至真的文字。梁启超说得好:杜甫对李白“所感痛苦,和自己亲受一样,所以作出来的诗,句句都带血带泪”。

注释:

[1]恻恻:悲叹不已。

[2]瘴疠:疾病,时疫。

[3]罗网:指法网。

[4]枫林:李白被放逐前往的地方多见枫树。

[5]关塞:杜甫流亡经过的秦州一带多见关塞。

[6]颜色:指相貌。

Dreaming of Li Bai
(I)

We stifle sobs on parting with the dead;

On parting with the living, tears are shed.

You’re exiled to miasmic Southern shore.

How can you not send us news any more?

Last night you came into my dream anew;

This shows how long I am thinking of you.

Now you are caught in net and bound with strings.

How can you free yourself with bound-up wings?

I fear it was not your soul I did dream.

Could it go such long way o’er mount and stream?

When it came, green would maple forests loom;

When it went, dark mountains were left in gloom.

The setting moon on rafters sheds its light;

I seem to see your beaming face as bright.

O monstrous billows where water is deep,

Don’t wake up monsters and dragons asleep!

梦李白
(二首其二)

浮云[1]终日行,

游子[2]久不至。

三夜频梦君,

情亲见君意。

告归常局促,

苦道来不易。

江湖多风波,

舟楫恐失坠。

出门搔白首[3],

若负平生志。

冠盖满京华,

斯人独憔悴。

孰云网恢恢?

将老身反累。

千秋万岁名,

寂寞身后事。

前篇所写是诗人初次梦见李白的情景,此后又连续出现类似的梦境,于是诗人又有此后篇的咏叹。前篇写的是梦见李白后忐忑不安的心理,后篇写的是梦中所见李白的形象。前四句诉说对故人的情谊。君入我梦,我见君意,体现两人肝胆相照的深情厚谊。“告归”六句描绘梦中李白的形象:每当魂归时,总是局促不安,苦诉往来之不易和江上风波迭起,对舟楫为风浪所吞的担忧;走出门去时搔着满头白发,分明是对壮志未酬宏图难展的怅然。对李白的多个侧面描写,使其犹在眼前。“江湖”两句,暗喻李白身处险境,抒发诗人与李白惺惺相惜之情。后六句是诗人梦醒后所发感慨:峨冠华盖权高位重者满京华都是,唯独这样一个风华绝代的人晚景凄凉,说什么天网恢恢。纵然一定会流芳百世,然而身后之事生前是看不到了。作者发出沉重的喟叹,寄托着对李白的崇高评价和深厚同情,也包含着诗人自己的无限心事。

注释:

[1]浮云:比喻人飘游不定。

[2]游子:指李白。

[3]搔白首:大概是李白的习惯动作。

Dreaming of Li Bai
(II)

Wandering clouds can be seen all the day,

But you, a wanderer, are far away.

For three successive nights I dreamed of you,

This shows our friendship old and ever new.

Leaving in haste, you said you had to go,

It was not easy to come, as we know.

There might be perils on the lake or river,

A single man in a small boat should shiver.

On leaving me, you scratched your white hair,

Regretting your ideals vanish in air.

So many courtiers in the capital,

Why should you not find your place, not at all?

Who says there is justice under the sky?

How could you have been exiled so far? Why?

What is the use of fame which lasts so long

As people have sung the funeral song?

Li Bai (701-762) was one of the greatest poets of the Tang Dynasty.

 

《梦李白二首》是唐代诗人杜甫创作的一组记梦诗。这组诗是杜甫听到李白流放夜郎后,积思成梦而作。组诗以梦前、梦中、梦后的次序叙写。第一首写初次梦见李白时的心理,表现对老友吉凶生死的关切;第二首写梦中所见李白的形象,抒写对老友悲惨遭遇的同情。全诗体现了李杜两人形离神合、肝胆相照、互劝互勉、至情交往的友谊。上下篇分工而又合作,相关而不雷同,结构完整,情感真诚。

“Dreaming of Li Bai” is a set of dream poems written by Du Fu, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The poems were written after Du Fu heard about Li Bai’s exile to the night lang, and his thoughts became dreams. The poems are written in the order of before, during and after the dream. The first poem is about the psychological state of mind when he first dreamed of Li Bai, expressing his concern for the fate of his old friend; the second poem is about the image of Li Bai seen in the dream, expressing his sympathy for his old friend’s tragic suffering. The whole poem reflects the friendship between Li and Du, who are separated from each other in form and in spirit, and who have mutual advice and encouragement. The upper and lower parts of the poem are divided but cooperative, related but not identical, with a complete structure and sincere emotions.

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