Du Fu Poems: Lament of a Homeless – 杜甫《无家别》

无家别

寂寞天宝后[1],

园庐[2]但蒿藜。

我里百余家,

世乱各东西。

存者无消息,

死者为尘泥。

贱子因阵败,

归来寻旧蹊。

久行见空巷,

日瘦[3]气惨凄。

但对狐与狸,

竖毛怒我啼。

四邻何所有?

一二老寡妻。

宿鸟恋本枝,

安辞且穷栖。

方春独荷锄,

日暮还灌畦。

县吏知我至,

召令习鼓鼙。

虽从本州役,

内顾无所携[4]。

近行止一身,

远去终转迷[5]。

家乡既荡尽,

远近理亦齐。

永痛长病母,

五年委沟溪[6]。

生我不得力,

终身两酸嘶[7]。

人生无家别,

何以为蒸黎[8]!

“三别”中《新婚别》写的是年轻的新婚夫妇,《垂老别》写的是年高的老夫老妻,《无家别》写的却是无家可归的中年男子。无家可归的人自称“贱子”,在战乱后回到家乡,只见一片荒凉,满目蒿藜。昔日百户人家,今日只见空巷。天上的太阳也愁容满面,消瘦暗淡;地上不见人迹,只有狐狸出没。近景描写细致,刻画入微。空宅凄凄,家人早已故去,抚今忆昔,不禁感慨系之,把自己比作无枝可栖的归鸟。不料县吏知道他回来了,又征调他去打鼓。于是他自喜自伤,喜的是在本州服役,伤的是无人送别;但一想到还要远去打仗,远近又有什么分别?这样层层深入地分析他的心理变化,又通过环境的描写,反映人物的思想感情。

注释:

[1]天宝后:安史之乱后。安史之乱爆发于天宝年间,故称“天宝后”。

[2]庐:住所,房屋。

[3]日瘦:日光淡薄。

[4]无所携:家里没有人可以作别。

[5]终转迷:终究前途未卜,生死难料。

[6]委沟溪:母亲被埋葬在山谷中。

[7]两酸嘶:母子二人含恨。

[8]蒸黎:劳动人民。

Lament of a Homeless

Since the rebellion I feel lone,

My house with weeds is overgrown.

A hundred homes can find no rest;

People are scattered east and west.

None knows where the living have fled,

While to dust have returned the dead.

My humble self after the defeat

Come back to find my old retreat.

I walk long on deserted lanes.

The sun grows lean where drear air reigns.

In face of bristling fox or cat,

I am afraid to be growled at.

How many neighbors left, all told?

Only one or two widows old.

A bird will not leave its own nest,

My house, though poor, will give me rest.

To hoe up weeds in spring’s my lot,

At dusk I water garden plot.

The magistrate knowing I’ve come

Orders me to learn to beat drum.

For service in my native land,

I need not carry things in hand.

Alone, I care not where to stay,

Be it near by or far away.

The land’s in ruins and debris,

The distance means nothing to me.

Sick for five years, my mother died

Unburied, with none by her side.

She gave birth to me, is it wrong?

How to repay her all life long?

I have no home to say goodbye.

What can poor people do but sigh!

 

《无家别》是唐代诗人杜甫创作的新题乐府组诗“三吏三别”之一。此诗叙写了一个邺城败后还乡无家可归、重又被征的军人,通过他的遭遇反映出当时农村的凋敝荒芜以及战区人民的悲惨遭遇,对统治者的残暴、腐朽,进行了有力的鞭挞。全诗情景交融,感人至深。全诗情感虽沉痛凄婉,批驳虽强烈深刻,却不是一味直陈显言,而是借景、物、事来寄情抒怀,显示了感人的艺术魅力。

The poem “Lament of a Homeless” is one of the newly-titled musical poems “Three Officials and Three Farewells” composed by the Tang Dynasty poet Du Fu. The poem is about a soldier who was defeated in Yecheng and returned to his hometown without a home and was conscripted again, reflecting through his ordeal the desolation of the countryside and the misery of the people in the war zone at that time, and a powerful rebuke of the brutality and decadence of the rulers. The whole poem is a blend of scenes and scenes, and is deeply moving. Although the poem is painful and poignant, and the criticism is strong and profound, it is not just a straightforward statement, but a sentimental expression of feelings through scenes, objects and events, showing a touching artistic charm.

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