Du Fu Poems: Lament of the Newly Wed – 杜甫《新婚别》

新婚别

兔丝[1]附蓬麻,

引蔓故不长。

嫁女与征夫,

不如弃路旁。

结发为妻子,

席不暖君床。

暮婚晨告别,

无乃太匆忙!

君行虽不远,

守边赴河阳[2]。

妾身未分明,

何以拜姑嫜[3]?

父母养我时,

日夜令我藏。

生女有所归[4],

鸡狗亦得将。

君今往死地,

沉痛迫中肠。

誓欲随君去,

形势反苍黄[5]。

勿为新婚念,

努力事戎行。

妇人在军中,

兵气恐不扬。

自嗟贫家女,

久致罗襦裳[6]。

罗襦不复施,

对君洗红妆。

仰视百鸟飞,

大小必双翔[7]。

人事多错迕,

与君永相望。

“三吏”主要是用问答方式写的,诗中有诗人和官吏的对话,或老妇对官吏的回答。“三别”却是用独白方式写的,诗中没有诗人出现,如《新婚别》就是新娘内心的独白。开始写新娘诉说自己不幸的命运,内容非常有戏剧性,却以比喻开始,把自己比作蔓草,缠绕在蓬麻上,注定了生长不长的。所以昨夜洞房花烛,今晨就要生离死别。而根据古代婚礼,三天以后才能拜见公婆,这样一夜夫妻,连身份都不明呢。接着新娘把话题由自身转到丈夫身上,说自己嫁鸡随鸡,而丈夫要上战场,自己又不能跟随,只能待在家里,心乱如麻。再后写新娘以理化情,鼓励丈夫从军,自己宁可不穿罗衣,不施脂粉,在家等候丈夫回来。最后又以比喻作结,看见百鸟双飞,觉得自己反而不如鸟了。这首诗写出了新娘矛盾曲折的心理,从中可以看出诗人同情人民、反对战争的思想。

注释:

[1]兔丝:植物名,又名无根草。一种依附于其他植物生长的寄生植物。

[2]河阳:唐军与叛军对峙之处。

[3]姑嫜(zhānɡ):公婆。

[4]归:出嫁。

[5]苍黄:同“仓皇”,形容慌张失措的样子。这里指会带来麻烦。

[6]襦裳:襦为短衣,裳为下衣。

[7]双翔:成双成对地飞翔。

Lament of the Newly Wed

The creeper clinging to the flax is wrong,

For it can’t be expected to grow long.

If a maiden to a soldier is tied

In wedlock, better forsake her by roadside.

My hair dressed up, to you I’m newly wed,

But we have not yet warmed our nuptial bed.

Married last night, at dawn we bid adieu.

Why should I part in such hurry with you?

Though you may not be very far away,

Only in Heyang garrison you’ll stay.

I have not performed the rites of a wife.

How can I serve your parents all my life?

Bred by my parents, I was told it’s right

To hide indoors every day and night.

Oh, I am destined to go to your house

Like a hen or a dog to be your spouse.

Now you go to a place in face of death,

How can I not utter my painful breath?

I would follow you wherever you go,

But I fear it would bring less weal than woe.

So forget the bride in your family then,

But do your duty as all army men.

If there were women in the camp, I fear,

It’s no good for morale on the frontier.

As a daughter of a poor family,

It’s difficult to get silk robe for me.

But I fear I could not wear it again,

Rougeless and powderless I would remain.

Looking up, I see hundreds of birds fly,

Big or small, all of them in pairs on high.

Why different should be our human fate?

O how long, how long should I for you wait!

《新婚别》是唐代诗人杜甫创作的新题乐府组诗“三吏三别”中的一首诗。此诗描写了一对新婚夫妻的离别,塑造了一个深明大义的少妇形象。结婚第二天丈夫就要赶赴战场,新娘虽然悲痛得心如刀割,但她同样认识到,丈夫的生死、爱情的存亡,与国家民族的命运,是不可分割地连结在一起的,要实现幸福的爱情理想,必须作出牺牲。于是,她强忍悲痛鼓励丈夫参军,同时坚定地表达至死不渝的爱情誓言。这是一首高度思想性和完美艺术性结合的作品,既有大胆的浪漫的艺术虚构,又具有现实主义的精雕细琢的特点。全诗模拟新妇的口吻自诉怨情,写出了当时人民面对战争的态度和复杂的心理,深刻地揭示了战争带给人民的巨大不幸。

“Lament of the Newly Wed” is one of the poems in “Three Officials and Three Farewells”, a group of newly-titled musical poems composed by Du Fu in the Tang Dynasty. The poem depicts the parting of a newlywed couple and portrays a young woman who understands the importance of righteousness. Although the bride’s heart is cut to pieces by her grief, she realizes that her husband’s life and death, the survival of love, and the fate of the nation are inseparably linked. Thus, she endures her grief and encourages her husband to join the army, while firmly expressing her vow of undying love. This is a work of high ideology and perfect artistry, characterized by both bold romantic artistic fiction and realistic refinement. The whole poem simulates a bride’s tone of self-reporting her grievances, and it illustrates the attitude and complex psychology of the people facing the war at that time, profoundly revealing the great misfortunes brought to the people by the war.

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