Du Fu Poems: Songs of Eight Immortal Drinkers  (Excerpts) – 杜甫《饮中八仙歌  (节选)》

饮中八仙歌
 (节选)

知章骑马似乘船,

眼花落井水底眠。

……

宗之潇洒美少年,

举觞白眼[1]望青天,

皎如玉树临风[2]前。

……

李白一斗诗百篇,

长安市上酒家眠,

天子呼来不上船,

自称臣是酒中仙。

张旭三杯草圣传,

脱帽露顶[3]王公前,

挥毫落纸如云烟。

《饮中八仙歌》是别具一格、富有特色的“肖像诗”,写的是八位好酒贪饮、飘飘欲仙的诗人。这里只选了四位:第一位是贺知章,他的名作是《回乡偶书》(少小离家老大回);第二位是崔宗之,就是李白《别友人》(浮云游子意,落日故人情)中的友人;第三位是李白;第四位是书法草圣张旭,他的名作是《桃花溪》。这里只谈李白,四句诗塑造了一个桀骜不驯、豪放不羁、傲视王侯的艺术形象。尤其是第三句“天子呼来不上船”,使李白的形象显得高大奇伟、神采奕奕,焕发出美的理想光辉,这正是千百年来人民所喜爱的富有浪漫主义色彩的诗人形象。

注释:

[1]白眼:形容看不起的表情。青眼看朋友,白眼视俗人。

[2]玉树临风:用玉树来比喻崔宗之的风姿卓越。

[3]脱帽露顶:写张旭狂放不羁的醉态。

Songs of Eight Immortal Drinkers
 (Excerpts)

Zhizhang feels dizzy on his horse as in a boat.

Should he fall in a well, asleep there he would float.

Without restraint, Zongzhi is a gallant young guy;

Wine cup in hand, he turns white eyes to the blue sky,

Like one of the jade trees standing in vernal breeze.

Li Bai would turn sweet nectar into verses fine.

Drunk in the capital, he’d lie in shops of wine.

Even imperial summons proudly he’d decline,

Saying immortals could not leave the drink divine.

In cursive writing Zhang Xu’s worthy of his fame.

After three drinks he bares his head before lord and dame,

And splashes cloud and mist on paper as with flame.

《饮中八仙歌》是唐代诗人杜甫的诗作。此诗将当时号称“酒中八仙人”的李白、贺知章、李适之、李琎、崔宗之、苏晋、张旭、焦遂八人从“饮酒”这个角度联系在一起,用追叙的方式,洗炼的语言,人物速写的笔法,构成一幅栩栩如生的群像图。全诗句句押韵,一韵到底;前不用起,后不用收;并列地分写八人,句数多少不齐,但首、尾、中腰,各用两句,前后或三或四,变化中仍有条理:在体裁上是一个创格。八人中,贺知章资格最老,所以放在第一位。其他按官爵,从王公宰相一直说到布衣。作者写八人醉态各有特点,纯用漫画素描的手法,写他们的平生醉趣,充分表现了他们嗜酒如命、放浪不羁的性格,生动地再现了盛唐时代文人士大夫乐观、放达的精神风貌。

“Songs of Eight Immortal Drinkers  (Excerpts)” is a poem written by Du Fu, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The poem links the eight “Eight Immortals of Wine”, Li Bai, He Zhizhang, Li Shizhi, Li Last Night, Cui Zongzhi, Su Jin, Zhang Xu and Jiao Sui, from the perspective of “drinking wine”, and uses a narrative style, refined language and sketches of characters to form a vivid group portrait. The poem is a lifelike group portrait. The whole poem rhymes in one line, and there is no need to start at the beginning and close at the end; the poem is divided into eight people side by side, and the number of lines varies, but two lines are used at the beginning, at the end, and in the middle, and three or four at the front and back. Among the eight, He Zhizhang is the oldest, so he is placed first. The rest of them, according to their official titles, range from princes and chancellors to the clothiers. The author writes about the drunkenness of each of the eight men, using a purely cartoonish sketching technique to write about their drunkenness, fully expressing their alcoholic and unrestrained personalities, and vividly reproducing the optimistic and liberal spirit of the literati and scholars of the Tang Dynasty.

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