Du Fu Poems: Temple of the Premier of Shu- 杜甫《蜀相》

蜀相

丞相[1]祠堂何处寻?

锦官城[2]外柏森森。

映阶碧草自春色,

隔叶黄鹂空好音。

三顾频烦天下计,

两朝开济[3]老臣心。

出师未捷[4]身先死,

长使英雄泪满襟。

公元760年春天,杜甫初来成都,看了诸葛丞相祠堂,写了这首《蜀相》。诗人先问“祠堂何处”,回答说“锦官(成都)城外”,翠柏森森,既是写景,又是写人,说诸葛亮和翠柏一样万古长青。接着又写映阶草绿,隔叶禽鸣,但加了个“自”字,就有绿草念人之意;又加了个“空”字。更是知音远去,好音谁听?不写人而人自见。接着知音出现:一个三顾茅庐,商量安定天下的大计;一个开国济世,显示辅佐先帝后主的忠心。可惜出师未捷身先死,后世英雄怎能不涕泪零零呢?杜甫以身许国,志在济世,自然也在后世英雄之内。这首七律写出了诗人对诸葛亮的景仰,可以说西蜀丞相就是他的楷模。

注释:

[1]丞相:诸葛亮。

[2]锦官城:成都。

[3]开济:开创基业,周济艰危。

[4]捷:取胜。

Temple of the Premier of Shu

Where is the famous premier’s temple to be found?

Outside the Town of Brocade with cypresses around.

In vain before the steps spring grass grows green and long,

And amid the leaves golden orioles sing their song.

Thrice the king visited him for the State’s gains and pains;

He served heart and soul the kingdom during two reigns.

But he died before he accomplished his career.

How could heroes not wet their sleeves with tear on tear!

 

《蜀相》是唐代诗人杜甫定居成都草堂后,翌年游览武侯祠时创作的一首咏史怀古诗。此诗借游览古迹,表达了诗人对蜀汉丞相诸葛亮雄才大略、辅佐两朝、忠心报国的称颂以及对他出师未捷而身死的惋惜之情。诗中既有尊蜀正统的观念,又有才困时艰的感慨,字里行间寄寓感物思人的情怀。这首七律章法曲折宛转,自然紧凑。前两联记行写景,洒洒脱脱;后两联议事论人,忽变沉郁。全篇由景到人,由寻找瞻仰到追述回顾,由感叹缅怀到泪流满襟,顿挫豪迈,几度层折。全诗所怀者大,所感者深,雄浑悲壮,沉郁顿挫,具有震撼人心的巨大力量。

The poem “Temple of the Premier of Shu” is a poem written by the Tang Dynasty poet Du Fu when he visited the Wuhou Temple the following year after settling in the Cao Tang Hall in Chengdu. The poem expresses the poet’s admiration for Zhuge Liang, the prime minister of the Shu Han Dynasty, for his great talent, his loyalty and service to his country, and his regret for his death before he was able to win the battle. The poem contains not only the concept of respecting Shu’s orthodoxy, but also the sentiment of hardship in time, and the sentiment of thinking of others. This seven-line poem has a twisting and turning style and is naturally compact. The first two lines are about scenery, and the last two lines are about people, and they suddenly become somber. The whole poem goes from scenery to people, from looking for admiration to retrospection, from sighing and reminiscing to tearing up. The poem is majestic and mournful, with a great power to shock people’s hearts.

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