Wang Wei Poems: The Deer Enclosure – 王维《鹿柴》

鹿柴[1]

空山不见人,

但闻人语响。

返景[2]入深林,

复照青苔上。

这首诗是王维后期山水诗的代表作。王维是诗人、画家兼音乐家。这首诗正体现出诗、画、乐的结合。无声的静寂、无光的幽暗,一般人都易于觉察;但有声的静寂,有光的幽暗,则较少为人所注意。诗人正是以他画家、音乐家对色彩、声音特有的敏感,才把握住了空山人语响和返照入深林那一刹那间所显示的特有的幽静境界。而这种敏感,又是和诗人的称号“诗佛”相关,即诗人不仅在用眼睛去细致观察大自然,更在潜心去默会这个世界。

注释:

[1]鹿柴(zhài):王维辋川别墅之一。

[2]返景(yǐnɡ):同“返影”,太阳即将落山时,通过云反射的阳光。

The Deer Enclosure

In pathless hills no man’s in sight,

But I still hear echoing sound.

In gloomy forest peeps no light,

But sunbeams slant on mossy ground.

 

《鹿柴》是唐代诗人王维的诗作。此诗写一座人迹罕至的空山,一片古木参天的树林。第一句先正面描写空山的杳无人迹,侧重于表现山的空寂清冷;紧接第二句境界顿出,以局部的、暂时的“响”反衬出全局的、长久的空寂;第三、第四句由上幅的描写空山传语进而描写深林返照,由声而色。全诗语言清新自然,运用以动衬静、以局部衬全局的手法,把禅意渗透于自然景色的生动描绘之中,创造了一个空寂幽深的境界。

The poem “The Deer Enclosure” is a poem by Wang Wei, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. This poem is about an empty mountain with few people and a forest of ancient trees. The first stanza firstly describes the empty mountain without any trace, focusing on the empty silence and coldness of the mountain; the second stanza immediately follows the realm, using the local and temporary “sound” to contrast the global and long-lasting empty silence; the third and fourth stanzas go from the description of the empty mountain in the previous frame to the description of the deep forest back to the light, from sound to color. The poem’s language is fresh and natural, using the technique of using movement to contrast with stillness and localization to contrast with the overall situation, permeating the Zen meaning into the vivid depiction of the natural scenery and creating a realm of emptiness and deep silence.

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