Du Fu Poems: The Pressgang at Stone Moat Village – 杜甫《石壕吏》

石壕吏

暮投石壕村,

有吏[1]夜捉人。

老翁逾[2]墙走,

老妇出门看。

吏呼一何怒!

妇啼一何苦!

听妇前致词:

“三男邺城戍[3]。

一男附书至,

二男新战死。

存者且偷生,

死者长已矣!

室中更无人,

惟有乳下孙。

有孙母未去[4],

出入无完裙。

老妪力虽衰,

请从吏夜归。

急应河阳役,

犹得备晨炊。”

夜久语声绝,

如闻泣幽咽[5]。

天明登前途[6],

独与老翁别。

《石壕吏》是“三吏”中最著名的一篇,全篇重点在“有吏夜捉人”一句。《新安吏》中还是征兵,《石壕吏》中却是捉人,可见情况更加严重。诗中说道:三男戍,二男死,孙方幼,媳无裙,翁逾墙,妇夜往。抓壮丁抓不到,连老妇人都拉去当差,可见民不聊生。全诗非常简练,在“吏呼一何怒”之后,不再写吏,而只写妇致词,这用的是寓问于答的写法。古人评说:“其事何长!其言何简!”全篇句句叙事,没有抒情,没有议论,但是通过叙事,却流露出了诗人的爱憎之情、褒贬之意。梁启超在《情圣杜甫》中谈到“三吏”时说:“这些诗是要作者的精神和那所写之人的精神并合为一,才能作出。……作这首《石壕吏》时,他已经化身做那位儿女死绝衣食不给的老太婆,所以他说的话,完全和他们自己说一样。……这类诗的好处在真,事愈写得详,真情愈发得透,我们熟读他,可以理会得‘真即是美’的道理。”

注释:

[1]吏:指来抓壮丁的低级官吏。

[2]逾(yú):越过,翻过。

[3]戍(shù):驻守,指服役。

[4]去:离开,这里指改嫁。

[5]泣幽咽:低声细小断续的哭声。

[6]登前途:上路。

The Pressgang at Stone Moat Village

I seek for shelter at nightfall.

What is the pressgang coming for?

My old host climbs over the wall;

My old hostess answers the door.

How angry is the sergeant’s shout!

How bitter is the woman’s cry!

I hear what she tries to speak out.

“I’d three sons guarding the town high.

One wrote a letter telling me

That his brothers were killed in war.

He’ll keep alive if he can be;

The dead have passed and are no more.

In the house there is no man left,

Except my grandson in the breast

Of his mother, of all bereft;

She can’t come out, in tatters dressed.

Though I’m a woman weak and old,

I beg to go tonight with you,

That I may serve in the stronghold

And cook morning meals as my due.”

With night her voices fade away;

I seem to hear still sob and sigh.

At dawn again I go my way

And only bid my host goodbye.

 

《石壕吏》是唐代大诗人杜甫的诗作,为“三吏三别”之一。这首诗通过作者亲眼所见的石壕吏乘夜捉人的故事,揭露封建统治者的残暴,反映了唐代“安史之乱”引起的战争给广大人民带来的深重灾难,表达了诗人对劳动人民的深切同情。此诗在艺术上的一大特点是精炼,把抒情和议论寓于叙事之中,爱憎分明。场面和细节描写自然真实,善于裁剪,中心突出,风格明白晓畅又悲壮沉郁,是现实主义文学的典范之作。

The poem “The Pressgang at Stone Moat Village” is a poem by Du Fu, a great poet of the Tang Dynasty, and is one of the “Three Officials and Three Bids”. The poem exposes the brutality of the feudal rulers through the story of the Shiguan Li who caught people at night, which the author saw with his own eyes, and reflects the deep disaster brought to the people by the war caused by the “An Shi Rebellion” in the Tang Dynasty. This poem is characterized by its artistic refinement, which combines lyricism and argument in the narrative, with a clear distinction between love and hate. The scenes and details are described in a natural and realistic way, and the poem is well cut and centered.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *