The first national hero to fight against the colonists and recover Taiwan Province
Chinese Name: 郑成功
English Name: Koxinga
Other Names: Fu Song 福松, Zheng Damu 郑大木, Zheng Yanping 郑延平
Born: August 28, 1624
Died: June 23, 1662
Fight against the Qing Dynasty in southeast China 东南抗清
Expel Dutch colonists and recover Taiwan 驱逐荷兰殖民者，收复台湾
Brief Biography of Koxinga
Koxinga 郑成功, the Han nationality, was a military strategist in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties 清朝, a famous general in the anti-Qing Dynasty wars, and a national hero.
Koxinga, originally known as Sen 森, also known as Fu Song 福松, courtesy name 字 Mingyan 明俨 and Damu 大木, was born in Hirado, Japan on August 28, 1624 (the fourth year of Tianqi 天启). His father was Zheng Zhilong 郑芝龙 and his mother was Tianchuan 田川. He was granted the state surname “Zhu 朱” and the name “Chenggong 成功” by Emperor Longwu 隆武 of the Ming Dynasty 明朝. He was also granted the title of “Zheng Yanping 郑延平” by Emperor Yongli 永历.
In 1638 (the 11th year of Chongzhen 崇祯), Koxinga was admitted as a scholar 秀才.
In 1644 (the 17th year of Chongzhen, the first year of Shunzhi 顺治 of the Qing Dynasty), Koxinga was sent to Jinling 金陵 to further study. In the same year, Li Zicheng 李自成 conquered Beijing, Emperor Chongzhen hanged himself in the coal mountain, and the Ming Dynasty perished. The left officials of the Ming Dynasty hailed Zhu Yousong 朱由崧 the emperor in Nanjing.
In May 1645 (the second year of Shunzhi of the Qing Dynasty, the first year of Hongguang 弘光), Emperor Hongguang was captured and the Hongguang regime was destroyed. In July, the Longwu 隆武 regime was established. Koxinga was highly appreciated by Emperor Longwu and was given the most respected Zhu 朱 family name in the dynasty.
In 1646 (the third year of the Shunzhi 顺治 of the Qing Dynasty and the second year of the Longwu 隆武 of the Ming Dynasty), the Qing army invaded the south of the Yangtze River 长江. Soon after, Zheng Zhilong fell to the Qing Dynasty and Tianchuan committed suicide in the chaos; Koxinga led his father’s old army to fight against the Qing Dynasty on the southeast coast of China, becoming one of the main military forces in the late Ming Dynasty. But he could only rely on the advantages of naval warfare to defend the islands of Xiamen 厦门 and Kinmen 金门 in Quanzhou 泉州 Prefecture.
In 1661 (the 18th year of the Shunzhi of the Qing Dynasty and the 15th year of the Yongli 永历 of the Ming Dynasty), Koxinga led his troops across the Taiwan Strait 台湾海峡. The following year, he defeated the garrison of the Dutch East India Company 荷兰东印度公司 in Taiwan 台湾 (now the territory of Tainan City 台南市, Taiwan) and recovered Taiwan.
Personal Life and Major Contributions
Fight against the Qing Dynasty
In 1646 (the third year of Shunzhi 顺治 of the Qing Dynasty and the second year of Longwu of the Ming Dynasty), the Qing army entered Fujian 福建, and Zheng Zhilong surrendered. However, Koxinga set up an army to resist the Qing Dynasty. Later, he joined forces with Zhang Huangyan 张煌言 in a northern expedition, shaking the southeast.
In February 1646 (the third year of Shunzhi of the Qing Dynasty and the second year of Longwu of the Ming Dynasty), Emperor Longwu (Zhu Yujian 朱聿键) moved to the Yanping 延平 mansion. In March, Koxinga was placed in a high position by Emperor Longwu and set up a military headquarters and a naval training base in Yanping.
In late August of the same year, Koxinga resigned from Emperor Longwu and fought with the Qing army on the Min River 闽江 in Yanping. The confrontation was unfavorable. He led his army South and fled to Kinmen 金门. He raised the banner of righteousness in the coastal areas of Kinmen and Xiamen.
Expel Dutch colonists and recover Taiwan
In 1624 (the fourth year of the Tianqi 天启), the Dutch colonists invaded Taiwan 台湾 and exercised cruel colonial rule.
In 1661 (the 18th year of Shunzhi 顺治), Koxinga led his army from Kinmen and Xiamen to cross the sea to recover Taiwan.
After the recovery of Taiwan, Koxinga actively performed the system of land reclamation to solve the problem of grain shortage. In a few years, the army could not only be self-sufficient but also have surplus grain to hand over to the government. He also encouraged coastal residents from the mainland to engage in reclamation in Taiwan and helped the Gaoshan people 高山族 improve their production technology.
Under the management of Koxinga and his sons and the efforts of the people of all ethnic groups in Taiwan, Taiwan gradually got rid of backwardness, caught up with other rich areas on the mainland, and became a beautiful and rich island of the motherland.
Develop Taiwan’s economy
Commerce is an organic part of the social economy. Koxinga took advantage of the favorable conditions of Taiwan, which is surrounded by the sea and is convenient for foreign trade, to vigorously develop overseas trade.
When he was in Xiamen 厦门, he often sent merchant ships to Southeast Asian countries for trade. After arriving in Taiwan, the Qing Dynasty implemented a “sea ban 海禁” and prohibited mainland merchant ships from going to the sea. Koxinga even monopolized the sea trade. He continued to trade with Japan, Siam 暹罗, Vietnam 越南, the Philippines 菲律宾, Cambodia 柬埔寨, and other countries, and exported Taiwan’s local specialties, such as deerskin, deer breast, camphor, sulfur, sugar, etc., in exchange for the necessary swords, armor and daily necessities.
The development of overseas trade not only enlivened the commodity economy but also increased Koxinga’s financial revenue. These trade measures promoted the development of Taiwan’s economy so that Taiwan’s economy and the mainland gradually developed synchronously.